• Dariush Izadi


This chapter sets out to explore the significance of storytelling in the context of the shop under investigation. Such stories are clearly observable in my study of actual talk in interaction as, while shopping, customers and shop-owners share with each other their daily lives. Examining narrative as talk-in-interaction offers another angle from which to view how the participants negotiate social belonging in a larger discourse unit. Here, I will focus on the positioning of narratives in the everyday lives of the shop-owners and their customers. In what follows, I will very briefly review previous work on narratives (small stories) and show how and why the participants in the shop use narratives during their shopping occasions. Narratives in my data will be investigated in turn as chronotopes of small stories, narrative as accounts, narrative as a mode of knowledge, narrative at the site of engagement and, finally, narrative as identity work.


  1. Bamberg, M., & Georgakopoulou, A. (2008). Small stories as a new perspective in narrative and identity analysis. Text & Talk, 28(3), 377–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauman, R. (2004). A world of others’ words. Cross-cultural perspectives on intertextuality. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell, A. (1984). Language style as audience design. Language in Society, 13(02), 145–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benwell, B., & Stokoe, E. (2006). Discourse and identity. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Blommaert, J. (2005). Discourse: A critical introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blommaert, J. (2007). Sociolinguistic scales. Intercultural Pragmatics, 4(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blommaert, J., Collins, J., & Slembrouck, S. (2005). Spaces of multilingualism. Language & Communication, 25(3), 197–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourdieu, P. (1997). The forms of capital. In A. H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown, & A. S. Wells (Eds.), Education: Culture, economy, and society (pp. 46–58). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bucholtz, M. (1999). Purchasing power: The gender and class imaginary on the shopping channel. In M. Bucholtz, A. C. Liang, & L. A. Sutton (Eds.), Reinventing identities: The gendered self in discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chafe, W. L. (1994). Discourse, consciousness, and time: The flow experience in speaking and writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  11. Collins, J., Slembrouck, S., & Baynham, M. (Eds.). (2009). Globalization and language in contact. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  12. Collins, J. (2011). Indexicalities of language contact in an era of globalization: Engaging with John Gumperz’s legacy. Text & Talk, 31(4), 407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Fina, A. (2006). Group identity, narrative and self-representations. In A. De Fina, D. Schiffrin, & M. Bamberg (Eds.), Discourse and identity (pp. 351–375). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Fina, A. (2008). Who tells which story and why? Micro and macro contexts in narrative. Text & Talk, 28(3), 421.Google Scholar
  15. De Fina, A. (2010). The negotiation of identities. In M. A. Locher & S. L. Graham (Eds.), Interpersonal pragmatics (pp. 205–224). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
  16. De Fina, A., & Georgakopoulou, A. (2008). Analysing narratives as practices. Qualitative Research, 8(3), 379–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Denzin, N. K. (2000). Foreword. In M. Andrews, S. Day Sclater, C. Squire, & A. Treacher (Eds.), Lines of narrative: Psychosocial perspectives (pp. xi–xiii). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Duncan, S., & Fiske, D. W. (1977). Face-to-face interaction: Research, methods, and theory. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Duranti, A. (1986). The audience as co-author: An introduction. Text & Talk, 6(3), 239–247.Google Scholar
  20. Duranti, A. (1997). Linguistic anthropology. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gardner, R. (2001). When listeners talk: Response tokens and listener stance. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  23. Garfinkel, H. (2006). Seeing sociologically: The routine grounds of social action. Boulder: Paradigm.Google Scholar
  24. Georgakopoulou, A. (2006). Thinking big with small stories in narrative and identity analysis. Narrative Inquiry, 16(1), 129–137.Google Scholar
  25. Goffman, E. (1967). Interactional ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  26. Goffman, E. (1981). Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  27. Goodwin, C. (1984). Notes on story structure and the organization of participation. In M. Atkinson & J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis (pp. 225–246). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Goodwin, C. (1986). Audience diversity, participation and interpretation. Text, 6(3), 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goodwin, C., & Goodwin, M. H. (1987). Concurrent operations on talk: Notes on the interactive organization of assessment. IPrA Papers in Pragmatics, 1(1), 1–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goodwin, M. H. (1980). Processes of mutual monitoring implicated in the production of description sequences. Sociological Inquiry, 50(3–4), 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gumperz, J. (1972). Introduction. In J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  32. Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gumperz, J. (1996). Introduction to part IV. In J. Gumperz & S. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 359–373). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Heritage, J. (1984). Garfinkel and ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  35. Heritage, J., & Watson, R. (1976). Formulations as conversational objects. In G. Psathas (Ed.), Everyday language: Studies in ethnomethodology (pp. 123–162). New York: Irvington Press.Google Scholar
  36. Holmes, J. (2006). Workplace narratives, professional identity and relational practice. In A. De Fina, D. Schiffrin, & M. Bamberg (Eds.), Discourse and identity (pp. 166–187). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Izadi, D. (2015). Spatial engagement in Persian ethnic shops in Sydney. Multimodal Communication, 4(1), 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Izadi, D. (2017). Semiotic resources and mediational tools in Merrylands, Sydney, Australia: The case of Persian and Afghan shops. Social Semiotics, 27(4), 495–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jakobson, R. (1957). Shifters, verbal categories and the Russian verb. Russian Language Project. Harvard: Department of Slavic Languages and Literature.Google Scholar
  40. Jaworski, A., & Thurlow, C. (Eds.). (2010). Semiotic landscapes: Language, image, space. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  41. Jefferson, G. (1984). Notes on a systematic deployment of the acknowledgement tokens “yeah”; and “mm hm”. In G. Jefferson (Ed.), Two papers on transitory recipientship (Tilburg Papers in Language and Literature 30) (pp. 1–18). Tilburg University.Google Scholar
  42. Jones, R. (2005). Sites of engagement as sites of attention: Time, space and culture in electronic discourse. In S. Norris & R. Jones (Eds.), Discourse in action: Introducing mediated discourse analysis. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kendon, A. (2004). Gesture: Visible action as utterance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kiesling, S. (2006). Hegemonic identity-making in narrative. In A. De Fina, D. Schiffrin, & M. Bamberg (Eds.), Discourse and identity (pp. 261–287). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kjaerbeck, S. (2008). Narratives as a resource to manage disagreement: Examples from a parents’ meeting in an extracurricular activity center. Text & Talk, 28(3), 307–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kjaerbeck, S., & Asmuß, B. (2005). Negotiating meaning in narratives: An investigation of the interactional construction of the punchline and the post punchline sequences. Narrative Inquiry, 15(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Labov, W. (1972). Language in the inner city: Studies in the Black English vernacular. Philadelphia, PA: University of Philadelphia Press.Google Scholar
  48. Labov, W., & Fanshel, D. (1977). Therapeutic discourse: Psychotherapy as conversation. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  49. Levinson, S. (1992). Activity types and language. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (Eds.), Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings (pp. 66–100). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Ochs, E. (1997). Narrative. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  51. Ochs, E., & Capps, L. (2001). Living narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Pennycook, A., & Otsuji, E. (2015). Metrolingualism: Language in the city. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peräkylä, A., & Vehviläinen, S. (2003). Conversation analysis and the professional stocks of interactional knowledge. Discourse & Society, 14(6), 727–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Perrino, S. (2011). Chronotopes of story and storytelling event in interviews. Language in Society, 40(1), 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Potter, J. (1996). Representing reality: Discourse, rhetoric and social construction. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rawls, A. W. (2008). Harold Garfinkel, ethnomethodology and workplace studies. Organization Studies, 29(5), 701–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sacks, H. (1992). Lectures on conversation (2 vols). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  58. Sacks, H. (1995). Lectures on conversation. Volumes I and II (G. Jefferson, Ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  59. Sarangi, S. (2000). Activity types, discourse types and interactional hybridity: The case of generic counselling. In S. Sarangi & M. Coulthard (Eds.), Discourse and social life (pp. 1–27). London: Pearson.Google Scholar
  60. Schegloff, E. A. (1982). Discourse as an interactional achievement: Some uses of ‘uh huh’ and other things that come between sentences. In D. Tannen (Ed.), Analyzing discourse: Text and talk (pp. 71–93). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Schegloff, E. A. (2007). Sequence organization in interaction: A primer in conversation analysis: Volume one. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schiffrin, D. (2006). In other words: Variation in reference and narrative. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Scollon, R. (1998). Mediated discourse as social interaction: A study of news discourse. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  64. Scollon, R. (1999). Mediated discourse and social interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 32(1 & 2), 149–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Scollon, R. (2001). Mediated discourse analysis: The nexus of practice. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. W. (2003). Discourses in place: Language in the material world. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. (2004). Nexus analysis: Discourse and the emerging internet. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Segerdahl, P. (2003). Conversation analysis as rigorous science. In C. L. Prevignano & P. J. Thibault (Eds.), Discussing conversation analysis: The work of Emanuel A. Schegloff. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  69. Silverman, D. (1998). Harvey Sacks: Social science and conversation analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Silverstein, M. (1976). Shifters, linguistic categories and cultural descriptions. In K. Basso & H. Selby (Eds.), Meaning in anthropology (pp. 11–55). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  71. Silverstein, M. (1998). The improvisational performance of culture in realtime discursive practice. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), Creativity in performance (pp. 265–312). Greenwich, CT: Ablex Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  72. Silverstein, M. (2003). Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life. Language & Communication, 23(3–4), 193–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Silverstein, M. (2005). Axes of evals: Token versus type interdiscursivity. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 15(1), 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stivers, T. (2008). Stance, alignment, and affiliation during storytelling: When nodding is a token of affiliation. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 41(1), 31–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wertsch, J. V. (1991). Voices of the mind: A sociocultural approach to mediated action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Wortham, S. (2001). Narratives in action. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  77. Zhu, H., Li, W., & Lyons, A. (2015). Language, business and superdiversity in London: Translanguaging business. Working Papers in Translanguaging and Translation (WP.5). Retrieved from

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dariush Izadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Sydney UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations