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Advanced Energy Storage Devices: Principles and Potential Applications in Sustainable Energetics

  • Murat Cakici
  • Kakarla Raghava ReddyEmail author
  • Robert H. OngEmail author
  • Venkata Chevali
Chapter
Part of the Strategies for Sustainability book series (STSU)

Abstract

Organic conjugated polymer based flexible sustainable storage devices have potential future applications in battery electric vehicles, rechargeable batteries, fuel cell vehicles due to their remarkable conductivity, low cost, easy fabrication in the industrial scale, stability (chemical, thermal and environmental), optical property, electroluminescence, doping-dedoping characteristics and controlling dimension (size and morphological structures) of electrode materials in the nanoscale from zero dimension (0D) to three dimension (3D). However, their application is limited due to low energy density, and loss of electrochemical properties at high temperatures. This can be overcome by functionalization of various metal oxides (e.g. TiO2, MnO2, ZnO, Fe3O4, SiO2, etc.), and nanocarbons (e.g. 3D graphene nanosheets, 1D carbon nanotubes, 0D graphene quantum dots, carbon nanofibers, etc.) with novel organic conjugated polymers by using various synthesis methodologies. It is due to well-defined structures, large surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties of nanostructured metal oxides or nanocarbons-functionalized conducting polymer hybrids.

The objectives of this chapter are to summarize and discuss recent developments of low cost and highly efficient sustainable energy storage devices based on various organic conjugated polymer/nanostructured metal oxides or nanocarbon hybrid flexible electrodes. Initially, various types of organic conjugated polymers and their surface modification techniques are introduced. Later, functionalization routes of metal oxides or nanocarbons with various conjugated polymers (e.g. polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophenes, their derivatives, copolymers, etc.) are discussed and it involves various fabrication methods such as in-situ, ex-situ, electrochemical polymerization, soapless, emulsion polymerization, inverse emulsion polymerization, atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), self-assembly process, etc. These fabrication techniques are depending on conjugated monomers and nanofillers types employed. Such techniques would produce novel multifunctional well-defined nanostructured hybrids consisting of metal oxides or carbons and organic conjugated polymers that have potential for applications in sustainable energy storage devices (supercapacitors, batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, and photoanodes). Structural, morphological and electrochemical (specific capacitance, capacity retention, voltage, energy density, power density, type of electrolytes, etc.) of these sustainable electrode materials are discussed. We summarize the recent work in the development of novel low cost and high-performance highly flexible nanostructured sustainable devices and their potential applications for the energy storage systems as mentioned above.

Keywords

Organic conjugated polymers Polyaniline Polypyrrole Polythiophene and its derivatives Conducting polymers Polymer synthesis Electrical conductivity Electrochemical properties Electrochemistry Energy storage devices Supercapacitors 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Centre for Future MaterialsUniversity of Southern QueenslandToowoombaAustralia

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