Development of Radiation Hard p+n Si Pixel Sensors for the European XFEL
Science at the European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) requires precision pixel detectors which need to withstand a dose of up to 1 GGy of 12 keV X-ray (1016 γ/cm3/pixel) for 3 years operation. Test structures, e.g. CMOS capacitors and CMOS gated diodes, fabricated by CiS, Erfurt, Germany have been irradiated with synchrotron radiation white light source at DESY DORIS III. Capacitance-voltage (C/V), conductance-voltage (G/V), current-voltage (I/V) and Thermally Depolarization Relaxation Current (TDRC) measurements have been performed. From these measurements oxide charge densities (Nox) and interface densities (Dit), capture cross-sections of Dit (σeff), width of gaussian σrmsit, and energy level Ec-Eit have been extracted and implemented into the semiconductor device simulation program Synopsys TCAD. Results from measurements could be reproduced by TCAD simulation. This experience is used to design radiation tolerant p+n silicon pixel sensors.
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