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Multi-actions of Microglia

  • Célestine BrunoisEmail author
  • Laurence Ris
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE)

Abstract

Microglia designate the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Their morphology is closely related to their function, from the highly ramified resting phenotype in the healthy brain to the amoeboid-like morphology of the activated typical state of pathological conditions. Indeed, microglial cells act as resident macrophages of the brain in order to respond to injury or pathogens. Recent studies have underlined the function of microglia in physiological conditions, especially via the secretion of several cytokines which have an important impact on synaptic plasticity and cognition. We will discuss the origin, the discovery, and the different activation states of microglia. We will also review the current knowledge about the functions of microglia during CNS development, immune surveillance and their implication in neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity in both physiological and pathological conditions. Microglia could represent a genuine potential therapeutic target in the context of neuroimmune diseases.

Keywords

Resident macrophages Cytokines Synaptic plasticity Neuroinflammation Phagocytosis 

Abbreviations

11C-PK11195

11C-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-[11C]methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

AMPA

Α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid

APC

Antigen-presenting cell

Arg1

Arginase 1

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

Amyloid beta

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

CaMK

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase

CCL

Chemokine ligand

CCR

Chemokine receptor

CD

Cluster of differentiation

CNS

Central nervous system

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CSF-1

Colony-stimulating factor-1

CX3CL1

C-X3-C chemokine ligand 1

CX3CR1

C-X3-C chemokine receptor 1

DAMPs

Damage-associated molecular patterns

DAP12

DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa

DC

Dendritic cell

EAE

Experimental autoimmune encephalitis

EGFP

Enhanced green fluorescent protein

ERK

Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase

GABA

Γ-Aminobutyric acid

GAD65

Glutamate decarboxylase 65

Gal-1

Galectin-1

GDNF

Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

GluR2

GluR2 subunit of AMPA receptor

Iba1

Ionised calcium-binding adapter molecule 1

IdU

5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine

IFN-γ

Interferon gamma

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor-1

IL

Interleukin

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

iPSCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

LTP

Long-term potentiation

Ly6C

Lymphocyte Antigen 6C

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

M-CSF

Macrophage colony-stimulating factor

MHC class II

Major histocompatibility complex class II

MS

Multiple sclerosis

MW151

4-Methyl-6-phenyl-3-(4-pyrimidin-2-ylpiperazin-1-yl)pyridazine (minozac)

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NFKB

Nuclear factor kappa B

NGF

Nerve growth factor

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartate

NO

Nitric oxide

NR2B

NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor

P2RY12

Purinergic receptor P2Y 12

PAMPs

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PET

Positron-emission tomography

PI3K

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

PKA

Protein kinase A

PKC

Protein kinase C

PLC-γ

Phospholipase C gamma

PSD-95

Postsynaptic density 95

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor beta

TMEM119

Transmembrane protein 119

TNF-α

Tumour necrosis factor alpha

TREM2

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2

TrkB

Tropomyosin receptor kinase B

TSPO

Translocator protein

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine and PharmacyUniversity of MonsMonsBelgium
  2. 2.UMONS Research Institute for Health Sciences and TechnologyMonsBelgium

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