Overview of Mechanisms Underlying Neuroimmune Diseases

  • Sandip Ashok Sonar
  • Girdhari LalEmail author
Part of the Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE)


The neuroimmune diseases are caused by autoimmune demyelination, opportunistic and neurotrophic infections, paraneoplastic conditions, neurodegeneration, and neuropsychiatric disorders. These diseases are multifactorial, complex, and heterogeneous with varied clinical and pathological features and often triggered by the interplay of genetics, environmental factors, and dysregulated immune activation. The molecular mimicry of neuronal antigens, generation of onconeural antigens, inflammation-induced neuronal antigen release, and cross-presentation are thought to activate the autoreactive T and B lymphocytes. The activation of several innate immune pathways, generation of effector T cells, production of autoantibodies, inflamed blood-brain barrier, and activated microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons are known to contribute to the development of neuronal diseases. The majority of current research is focused on the genetic association, biomarker discovery, differential diagnosis, treatment choices, and identification of immunological and neurological basis of neuroimmune diseases. In this chapter, we discuss the clinical and pathological features of neuroimmune diseases and also present an overview of the current understanding of the immunological and neurological mechanisms. We also highlighted the cellular and molecular interactions in the generation of autoantibodies, inflammatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, reactive microglia and astrocytes, and importance of the blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammation and autoimmunity.


Autoimmune demyelination Autoantibody Autoreactive T cells Blood-brain barrier Neuroinflammation 



acetylcholine receptor


Alzheimer’s disease


acute disseminated encephalomyelitis


amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid


anti-neuronal nuclear antibody type 1


aquaporin 4


autism spectrum disorder


blood-brain barrier


blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier


blood-nerve barrier


regulatory B cells


anti-contactin-associated protein 2


central nervous system


cerebrospinal fluid


damage-associated molecular patterns


experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis


gamma-aminobutyric acid


glutamic acid decarboxylase 65


Huntington’s disease


herpes simplex virus




leucine-rich glioma-inactivated-1


myelin-associated glycoprotein


myelin basic protein


metabotropic glutamate receptor


myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein


magnetic resonance imaging


multiple sclerosis




neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders


Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody 2


Parkinson’s disease


progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy


primary progressive multiple sclerosis


relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis


small-cell lung carcinoma


systemic lupus erythematosus


superoxide dismutase 1


secondary progressive multiple sclerosis


stiff-person syndrome


regulatory CD4+ T cells


triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2


tissue-resident memory T cells


varicella-zoster virus


West Nile virus


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Centre for Cell SciencePuneIndia

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