Classification and Uses of Emulsions in Food and Agro Applications

  • Antony Allwyn SundarrajEmail author
  • Thottiam Vasudevan Ranganathan


Emulsions are partially produced in the structures of many natural and artificial (processed) foods. In general, “emulsion” is defined as a structure formed through the dispersion of one or two immiscible liquids within the other in the form of small drops. Emulsion-based delivery systems can offer many possible benefits for incorporating essential oils such as omega-3 (ω-3) into foods and beverages. There are also many terms available to describe the different types of emulsions and it is very important to define and clarify these terms as “oil/water”, “micro”, “macro” and “nano” and “suspo” emulsions. This review can provide a general description of the general terms of the types of emulsion, the role of various emulsifying agents and the possible application of emulsions in various sectors of the food and agricultural industry.


Active substance carries Colloids Controlled release Prolonged and sustained release Sustainable polymers 



The authors would like to thank the management, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


  1. Achouri, A., Zamani, Y., & Boyne, J. I. (2012). Stability and physical properties of emulsions prepared with and without soy proteins. Journal of Food Research, 1(1), 254–267. Scholar
  2. Agrawal, S., & Rathore, P. (2014). Nanotechnology pros and cons to agriculture: A review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(3), 43–55.Google Scholar
  3. Altuntas, O. Y., Sumnu, G., & Sahin, S. (2017). Preparation and characterization of W/O/W type double emulsion containing PGPR–lecithin mixture as lipophilic surfactant. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 38(4), 486–493. Scholar
  4. Amaral, D. M. F., & Bhargava, K. (2015). Essential oil nano-emulsions and food applications. Advances in Food Technology Nutritional Sciences Open Journal, 1(4), 84–87. Scholar
  5. Aoki, T., Decker, E. A., & McClements, D. J. (2005). Influence of environmental stresses on stability of O/W emulsions containing droplets stabilized by multi-layered membranes produced by a layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition technique. Food Hydrocolloids, 19(2), 209–220. Scholar
  6. Bai, L., & McClements, D. J. (2016). Extending emulsion functionality: Post-homogenization modification of droplet properties. Process, 4(17), 1–18. Scholar
  7. Baran, R., & Maibach, H. (1997). Textbook of cosmetic dermatology (4th ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bergenstahl, B. A., & Claesson, P. M. (1997). Surface forces in emulsions. In S. E. Friberg & K. Larsson (Eds.), Food emulsions (3rd ed.). New York/Basel: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  9. Bouwmeester, H. (2009). Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 53(1), 52–62. Scholar
  10. Bracone, M., Merino, D., González, J., Alvarez, V. A., & Gutiérrez, T. J. (2016). Chapter 6. Nanopackaging from natural fillers and biopolymers for the development of active and intelligent films. In S. Ikram & S. Ahmed (Eds.), Natural polymers: Derivatives, blends and composites (pp. 119–155). New York. EE.UU. ISBN: 978-1-63485-831-1: Editorial Nova Science Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  11. Brewer, D. R., Franco, J. M., & Garcia-Zapateiro, L. A. (2016). Rheological properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with oil and protein isolates from sesame (Sesamum indicum). Food Science and Technology, Campinas, 36(1), 64–69. Scholar
  12. Brody, A. L. (2007). Case studies on nanotechnologies for food packaging. Food Technology, 07, 102–107.Google Scholar
  13. Candau, F., & Anquetil, J. (1998). In D. O. Shah (Ed.), Micelles, micro-emulsions and monolayers: Science and technology (p. 193). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  14. Chanamai, R., & McClements, D. J. (2002). Comparison of gum Arabic, modified starch and whey protein isolate as emulsifiers: Influence of pH, CaCl2 and temperature. Journal of Food Science, 67(1), 120–125. Scholar
  15. Chaudhry, Q., Scotter, M., & Blackburn, J. (2008). Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sectors. Food Additives and Contaminants, 25(3), 241–258. Scholar
  16. Chee, C. P., Gallaher, J. J., Djordjevic, D., Faraji, H., McClements, D. J., & Decker, E. A. (2005). Chemical and sensory analysis of strawberry flavoured yogurt supplemented with an algae oil emulsion. Journal of Dairy Research, 72(3), 311–316. Scholar
  17. Chen, C., & Wagner, G. (2004). Vitamin E nanoparticle for beverage applications. Chemical Engineering Research Desiccation’s, 82(11), 1432–1437. Scholar
  18. Cofrades, S., Santos-Lopez, J. A., Freire, M., Bened, J., Sanchez-Muniz, F. J., & Jimenez-Colmenero, F. (2014). Oxidative stability of meat systems made with W1/O/W2 emulsions prepared with hydroxytyrosol and chia oil as lipid phase. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 59(2), 941–947. Scholar
  19. Derkach, S. R. (2009). Rheology of emulsions. Advances in Colloid Interface Sciences, 151(1–2), 1–23. Scholar
  20. Dickinson, E. (2003). Hydrocolloids at interfaces and the influence on the properties of dispersed systems. Food Hydrocolloids, 17(1), 25–39. Scholar
  21. Dickinson, E. (2009). Hydrocolloids as emulsifiers and emulsion stabilizers. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(6), 1473–1482. Scholar
  22. Dingman, J. (2008). Nanotechnology: Its impact on food safety. Journal of Environmental Health, 1(3), 5–8.Google Scholar
  23. Djordjevic, D., Cercaci, L., Alamed, J., McClements, D. J., & Decker, E. A. (2008). Stability of citral in protein and gum arabic-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Food Chemistry, 106(2), 698–705. Scholar
  24. Donsi, F., Marchese, E., & Maresca, P. (2015). Green beans preservation by combination of a modified chitosan based-coating containing nano-emulsion of mandarin essential oil with high pressure or pulsed light processing. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 106, 21–32. Scholar
  25. Dreher, K. L. (2004). Health and environmental impact of nanotechnology: Toxicological assessment of manufactured nanoparticles. Toxicological Sciences, 77(1), 3–5. Scholar
  26. Drusch, S. (2012). An industry perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of different fish oil delivery systems. In N. Garti & D. J. McClements (Eds.), Encapsulation technologies and delivery systems for food ingredients and nutraceuticals (pp. 488–504). Scholar
  27. El-Nokaly, M., Hiler, G., & McGrady, J. (1991). In M. El-Nokaly & D. Cornell (Eds.), Micro-emulsions and emulsions in foods (pp. 26–43). Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fanun, M. (2009). Properties of micro-emulsions with sugar surfactants and peppermint oil. Colloid Polymer Science, 287(8), 899–910. Scholar
  29. Fernandez, A., Torres-Giner, S., & Lagaron, J. M. (2009). Novel route to stabilization of bioactive antioxidants by encapsulation in electrospun fibers of zein prolamine. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(5), 1427–1432. Scholar
  30. Flaiz, L., Freire, M., Cofrades, S., Mateos, R., Weiss, J., Jimenez-Colmenero, F., & Bou, R. (2016). Comparison of simple, double and gelled double emulsions as hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acid delivery systems. Food Chemistry, 213(15), 49–57. Scholar
  31. Flanagan, J., & Singh, H. (2006). Micro-emulsions: a potential delivery systems for bio-actives in food. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 46(3), 221–237. Scholar
  32. Friberg, S. E., & Bothorel, P. (1987). Micro-emulsions: Structure and dynamics (p. 1987). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  33. Gadhave, A. D. (2014). Nano-emulsions: Formation, stability and applications. International Journal for Research in Sciences and Advanced Technologies, 3(2), 38–43.Google Scholar
  34. Garti, N., & Reichman, D. (1993). Hydrocolloids as food emulsifiers and stabilizers. Food Structure, 12, 411–426.Google Scholar
  35. Gasic, S., & Tanovic, B. (2013). Biopesticide formulations, possibility of application and future trends. Pesticides Phytomedicines (Belgrade), 28(2), 97–102. Scholar
  36. Gilbert, S. G. (1985). Food/package compatibility. Food Technology, 39(12), 54–56.Google Scholar
  37. Gogos, A., Knauer, K., & Bucheli, T. D. (2012). Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 60(39), 9781–9792. Scholar
  38. GuhanNath, S., Aaron, S. I., Raj, A. A. S., & Ranganathan, T. V. (2014). Recent innovations in nano-technology in food processing and its various applications – A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Sciences Review and Research, 29(2), 116–124.Google Scholar
  39. Gutierrez, J. M. (2008). Nano-emulsions: New applications and optimization of their preparation. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 13(4), 245–251. Scholar
  40. Gutiérrez, T. J. (2018a). Chapter 55. Processing nano- and microcapsules for industrial applications. In: Handbook of nanomaterials for industrial applications. Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain (Ed). Editorial Elsevier. EE.UU. ISBN: 978–0–12-813351-4. pp. 989–1011. Scholar
  41. Gutiérrez, T. J. (2018b). Chapter 9. Biodegradability and compostability of food nanopackaging materials. In: Composite materials for food packaging. Giuseppe Cirillo, Marek A. Kozlowski, and Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri (Eds). WILEY-Scrivener Publisher. EE.UU. ISBN: 978–1–119-16020-5. pp. 269–296. Scholar
  42. Gutiérrez, T. J., & Álvarez, K. (2017). Chapter 6. Biopolymers as microencapsulation materials in the food industry. In M. Masuelli & D. Renard (Eds.), Advances in physicochemical properties of biopolymers: Part 2 (pp. 296–322). Bentham Science Publishers. EE.UU. ISBN: 978–1–68108–545–6. eISBN: 978–1–68108–544–9.
  43. Hazra, D. K., Karmakar, R., Poi, R., Bhattacharya, S., & Mondal, W. (2017). Recent advances in pesticide formulations for eco-friendly and sustainable vegetable post management: A review. Achieves of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 2(3), 232–237.Google Scholar
  44. Hogan, H. A., McNamee, B. F., O’Riordan, E. D., & O’Sullivan, M. (2001). Microencapsulating properties of sodium caseinate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(4), 1934–1938. Scholar
  45. Huang, X., Kakuda, Y., & Cui, W. (2001). Hydrocolloids in emulsions: Particle size distribution and interfacial activity. Food Hydrocolloids, 15(4–6), 533–542. Scholar
  46. Imeson, A.P. (1992). Exudate gums. In A. Blackie & P. Glasgow A. P. Imeson). Thickening and gelling agents for food (pp. 66–97). London: Blackie Academic and Professional.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. IRGC. (2008). International risk governance council, towards an integrative approach. Geneva: Available at:
  48. Jacobsen, C. (2010). Enrichment of foods with omega-3 fatty acids: A multidisciplinary challenge: Omega-3-enriched foods. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1190(1), 141–150. Scholar
  49. Jimenez-Colmenero, F. (2013). Potential applications of multiple emulsions in the development of healthy and functional foods. Food Research International, 52(1), 64–74. Scholar
  50. Kim, I. H., Lee, H., & Kim, J. E. (2013). Plum coatings of lemongrass oil-incorporating carnauba wax-based nanoemulsion. Journal of Food Science, 78(10), 1551–1559. Scholar
  51. Knightly, W. H. (1989). Lecithin in baking. In B. F. Szuhaj (Ed.), Lecithins: Sources, manufacture and uses. Chicago: American Oil Chemists Society.Google Scholar
  52. Knowles, A. (2008). Recent developments of safer formulations of agrochemicals. Environmentalist, 28(1), 35–44. Scholar
  53. Kumar, A., Negi, Y. S., Choudhary, V., & Bhardwaj, N. K. (2014). Characterization of cellulose nanocrystals produced by acid-hydrolysis from sugarcane bagasse as agro-waste. Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry, 2(1), 1–8. Scholar
  54. Landry, K. S., Micheli, S., McClements, D. J., & McLandsborough, L. (2015). Effectiveness of a spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated broccoli and radish seeds. Food Microbiology, 51, 10–17. Scholar
  55. Lane, K. E., Li, W., Smith, C., & Derbyshire, E. (2014). The bioavailability of an omega-3-rich algal oil is improved by nano-emulsion technology using yogurt as a food vehicle. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 49(5), 1264–1271. Scholar
  56. Le Reverend, B. J. D., Norton, I. T., Cox, P. W., & Spyropoulos, F. (2010). Colloidal aspects of eating. Current Opinion in Colloids Interface Sciences, 15(1–2), 84–89. Scholar
  57. Li, X., Anton, N., & Vandamme, T. (2013). Nano-emulsions: Overview and applications. Liang XJ, editor, pp. 21–48.Google Scholar
  58. Lin, K. W., & Mei, M. Y. (2000). Influences of gums, soy protein isolate, and heating temperatures on reduced-fat meat batters in a model system. Journal of Food Science, 65(1), 48–52. Scholar
  59. Lorenzo, G., Zaritzky, N., & Califano, A. (2018). Food gel emulsions: Structural characteristics and viscoelastic behavior. In T. J. Gutiérrez (Ed.), Polymers for food applications (pp. 481–507). Cham: Springer. Scholar
  60. Mao, L., Xu, D., Yang, J., Yuan, F., Gao, Y., & Zhao, J. (2009). Effects of small and large molecules emulsifiers on the characteristics of β-carotene nano-emulsions prepared by high pressure homogenization. Food Technological Biotechnology, 47(3), 336–342.Google Scholar
  61. Martins, P., Dulley, R., Ramos, S., Barbosa, M., Assumpçao, R., Junior, S., & Lacerda, A. (2007). Nanotecnologias na indústria de alimentos. Available at: marisabarbosa_nano_puc.pdf.
  62. Mason, T. G., Wilking, J. N., Meleson, K., Chang, C. B., & Graves, S. M. (2006). Nanoemulsions: formation, structure, and physical properties. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 18(41), 635–666.Google Scholar
  63. McClements, D. J. (1999). Food emulsions: Principles, practice and techniques (1st ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  64. McClements, D. J. (2004). Role of hydrocolloids as emulsifiers in foods. In P. A. Phillips & G. O. Williams (Eds.), Gums and stabilizers for the food industry (pp. 381–393). Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. Special Publication No. 294.Google Scholar
  65. McClements, D. J. (2011). Edible nano-emulsions: Fabrication, properties, and functional performance. Soft Matter, 7(6), 2297–2316. Scholar
  66. McClements, D. J., & Decker, E. A. (2000). Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions: Impact of molecular environment on chemical reactions in heterogeneous food systems. Journal of Food Science, 65(8), 1270–1282. Scholar
  67. Melik, D. H., & Fogler, H. S. (1998). Fundamentals of colloidal stability in quiscent media. In R. Beccher (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of emulsion technology (Vol. III., Chap. 1, pp. 3–78). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  68. Möller, M., Eberle, U., Hermann, A., Moch, K., & Stratmann, B. (2009). Nanotechnology in the food sector. Zürich: TA-SWISS.Google Scholar
  69. Mura, S., Greppi, G. F., & Irudayaraj, J. (2015). Latest developments of nanotoxicology in plants. In M. H. Siddiqui, Al-Whaibi, M. H., & Mohammad, F. (Eds.), Nanotechnology and plant sciences (pp. 125–151). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Scholar
  70. Muschiolik, G., & Dickinson, E. (2017). Double emulsions relevant to food systems: Preparation, stability and applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16(3), 532–555. Scholar
  71. Nethaji, D. K., & Parambil, K. A. (2017). Development and applications of nano emulsion in food technology. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Management, 2(12), 60–63.Google Scholar
  72. O’ Dwyer, S. P., O’ Beirne, D., Ni Eidhin, D., Hennessy, A. A., & O’ Kennedy, B. T. (2013). Formation, rheology and susceptibility to lipid oxidation of multiple emulsions (O/W/O) in table spreads containing omega-3 rich oils. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 51(2), 484–491. Scholar
  73. Paul, B. K., & Moulik, S. P. (2001). Uses and application of micro-emulsions. Current Science, 80(8), 990–1001.Google Scholar
  74. Poyato, C., Navarro-Blasco, I., Calvo, M. I., Cavero, R. Y., Astiasaran, I., & Ansorena, D. (2013). Oxidative stability of O/W and W/O/W emulsions: effect of lipid composition and antioxidant polarity. Food Research International, 51(1), 132–140. Scholar
  75. Raj, A. A. S., Jayaraman, R., Rubila, S., & Tiroutchelvamae, D. (2013). Recent trends in nanotechnology applications in foods. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2(10), 956–961.Google Scholar
  76. Rasooli, I. (2007). Food preservation-a bio-preservative approach. Food, 1, 111–136.Google Scholar
  77. Renton, A., (2006). Welcome to the world of nano-foods. Guardian Unlimited UK 12. Available at: od/story/.
  78. Sadurni, N. (2005). Studies on the formation of O/W nano-emulsions, by low-energy emulsification methods, suitable for pharmaceutical applications. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 26(5), 438–445. Scholar
  79. Sanguansri, P., & Augustin, M. A. (2006). Nanoscale materials, development of food industry perspective. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17(10), 547–556. Scholar
  80. Schramm, L. L. (1992). Emulsions: Fundamentals and applications in the petroleum industry. Washington, D.C: American Chemical Society.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schrooyen, P. M. M., van der Meer, R., & De Kruif, C. G. (2001). Microencapsulation: Its application in nutrition. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 60(4), 475–479. Scholar
  82. Serdaroglu, M., Ozturk, B., & Kara, A. (2015). An overview of food emulsions: Description, classification and recent potential applications. Turkish Journal of Agriculture – Food Science and Technology, 3(6), 430–438. Scholar
  83. Severino, R., Vu, K. D., Donsi, F., Salmieri, S., Ferrari, G., & Lacroix, M. (2014). Antibacterial and physical effects of modified chitosan based-coating containing nano-emulsion of mandarin essential oil and three non-thermal treatments against Listeria innocua in green beans. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 191, 82–88. Scholar
  84. Shafiq, S., Shakeel, F., Talegaonkar, S., Ali, J., Baboota, S., Ahuja, A., Khar, R. K., & Ali, M. (2007). Formation development and optimization using nano-emulsion technique: A technical note. Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, 8(2), 1–6. Scholar
  85. Shah, D. O. (1998). In D. O. Shah (Ed.), Micelles, micro-emulsions and monolayers: Science and technology (p. 1). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  86. Shakeel, F., Baboota, S., Ahuja, A., Ali, J., & Shafiq, S. (2008). Accelerated stability testing of celecoxib nano-emulsion containing cremophor-EL. African Journal of Pharmaceutical Pharmacologists, 2, 179–183.Google Scholar
  87. Sharma, R. (2005). Market trends and opportunities for functional dairy beverages. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 60(2), 195–198.Google Scholar
  88. Silva, H. D., Cerqueira, M. A., & Vicente, A. A. (2012). Nano-emulsions for food applications: Development and characterization. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(3), 854–867. Scholar
  89. Singh, H., & Ye, A. (2000). Influence of calcium chloride addition on the properties of emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate. Food Hydrocolloids, 14(4), 337–346.–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Solans, T., Izquierdo, P., Nolla, J., Azemar, N., & Garcia, C. M. J. (2005). Nano-emulsions. Current Opinion in Colloid Interface Science, 10(3–4), 102–110. Scholar
  91. Sozer, N., & Kokin, J. L. (2008). Nanotechnology and its applications in the food sector. Trends in Biotechnology, 27(2), 82–89. Scholar
  92. Tadros, T. F. (1995). Surfactants in Agrochemicals. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  93. Tadros, T. (2004). Formation and stability of nano-emulsions. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 108–109, 303–318. Scholar
  94. Tadros, F. (2005). Applied surfactants, principles and applications (pp. 187–256). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and KGaA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Takahashi, Y., Yoshida, T., & Takahashi, T., inventors. 1986. Process for the production of a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion for foods. U.S. Patent 4590086.Google Scholar
  96. Tan, C. T. (1990). Beverage emulsions. In K. Larsson & S. E. Friberg (Eds.), Food emulsions (2nd ed., pp. 445–478). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  97. Trubiano, P.C. (1995). The role of specialty food starches in flavor emulsions. Flavor Technology. Washington, D. C: ACS Symposium Series, 610, American Chemical Society.Google Scholar
  98. Velikov, K., & Pelan, E. (2008). Colloidal delivery systems for micronutrients and nutraceuticals. Soft Matter, 4(10), 1964–1980. Scholar
  99. Vernner, R., & Bauer, P. (2007). O-TEQ®, a formulation concept that overcomes the in-compability between water and oil. Pfalzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer, 60(1), 7–26.Google Scholar
  100. Walker, & Rebecca, M. (2015). Fish oil Nano-emulsions: Optimization of physical and chemical stability for food system applications. Masters Theses. 313, Available at:
  101. Wang, X., Jiang, Y., Wang, Y., Huang, M., Ho, C. T., & Huang, Q. (2008). Enhancing anti-inflammation activity of curcumin through O/W nano-emulsions. Food Chemistry, 108(2), 419–424. Scholar
  102. Waraho, T., McClements, D. J., & Decker, E. A. (2011). Mechanisms of lipid oxidation in food dispersions. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 22(1), 3–13. Scholar
  103. Weiss, J., Takhistov, P., & McClements, D. J. (2006). Functional materials in food nanotechnology. Journal of Food Science, 71(9), 107–116. Scholar
  104. Wesley, S. J., Raja, P., Raj, A. A. S., & Tiroutchelvamae, D. (2014). Review on – Nanotechnology applications in food packaging and safety. International Journal of Engineering Research, 3(11), 645–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Whitesides, G. M., & Grzybowski, B. (2002). Self-assembly at all scales. Science, 295(5564), 2418–2421. Scholar
  106. Wooster, T. J., Golding, M., & Sanguansri, P. (2008). Impact of oil type on nano-emulsion formulation and Ostwald ripening stability. Langmuir, 24(22), 12758–12765. Scholar
  107. Yang, Y., Marshall-Breton, C., Leser, M. E., Sher, A. A., & McClements, D. J. (2012). Fabrication of ultrafine edible emulsions: Comparison of high-energy and low-energy homogenization methods. Food Hydrocolloids, 29(2), 398–406. Scholar
  108. Yoksan, R., Jirawutthiwongchai, J., & Arpo, K. (2010). Encapsulation of ascorbyl palmitate in chitosan nanoparticles by oil-in-water emulsion and ionic gelation processes. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 76(1), 292–297. Scholar
  109. Zhang, J. (2011). Novel emulsion-based delivery systems. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  110. Zheng, H. (2018). Polymers for structure design of dairy foods. In T. J. Gutiérrez (Ed.), Polymers for food applications (pp. 509–528). Cham: Springer. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antony Allwyn Sundarraj
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thottiam Vasudevan Ranganathan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food TechnologySri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food Processing TechnologyKarunya Institute of Technology and SciencesCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations