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The Equilibrium State of Water in the Systems

  • Klaus Reichardt
  • Luís Carlos Timm
Chapter

Abstract

The state of equilibrium of water in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System (SPAS) is essential for the understanding of the dynamic processes that occur in the system, which will be dealt in the chapters to come. We introduce thermodynamic concepts to the state of water in a universal form, with a physical understanding for agronomists, environmentalists, biologists and all scientists interested in deeply studying the SPAS as a whole. The concepts are first applied to the simplest equilibrium state, which is that of pure water in a glass, then progressively coming to more complex situations of agricultural crops in the field. It is shown why the general tendency of water is to move spontaneously from the soil to the plant, and from the plant to the atmosphere. For this, the concept of total potential of the water is explored and applied to the most different situations. Soil water retention, available water to plants, and several other concepts related to irrigation and soil management are discussed, all related to the understanding of the energy status of the water in the SPAS. Of great importance is also the presentation of the mostly used instruments for the quantification of water in different systems, and for the measurement of the status of energy of the water.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Reichardt
    • 1
  • Luís Carlos Timm
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura and Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiróz”University of Sao PauloPiracicabaBrazil
  2. 2.Rural Engineering Department, Faculty of AgronomyFederal University of PelotasCapão do LeãoBrazil

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