Spatial and Temporal Variability of SPAS Attributes: Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Series

  • Klaus Reichardt
  • Luís Carlos Timm


Spatial and temporal variability of the soil-plant-atmosphere system is an important tool for the statistical analysis of several sets of data collected in the field. The techniques here seen allow the scientist to reveal characteristics of systems that cannot be analyzed by classical statistics methods. Various tools are presented, like the cross-correlogram, calculation of number of samples to be collected, spectral analysis, wavelets, and spectra. An introduction to multivariate analysis (wavelet analysis and multivariate empirical mode decomposition method) is given. A very extended analysis is made of the state-space methodology, introducing the matrix of coefficients and the matrix of observations. The Kalman Filter is also demonstrated in the context of the state-space analysis. Two approaches used in the state-space analysis are shown in detail with several practical examples: Shumway’s approach and West and Harrison’s approach.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Reichardt
    • 1
  • Luís Carlos Timm
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura and Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiróz”University of Sao PauloPiracicabaBrazil
  2. 2.Rural Engineering Department, Faculty of AgronomyFederal University of PelotasCapão do LeãoBrazil

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