Complications of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

  • Alexander Bitzer
  • Ronak Kotian
  • Jorge Rojas
  • Edward G. McFarlandEmail author


Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has proven to be a valuable solution for not only cuff tear arthropathy but a variety of other shoulder conditions [Flatow and Harrison, Clin Orthop Relat Res 469(9):2432–2439, 2011; Gerber et al., J Am Acad Orthop Surg 17(5):284–95, 2009; Sirveaux et al., J Bone Joint Surg Br 86(3):388–95, 2004]. For most conditions, RTSA provides excellent pain relief and variable degrees of improved motion. However, like any evolving technology, there are a variety of complications that are unique to this prosthesis and may affect the final clinical results and what to expect from this procedure by the patient and provider alike. Some of these complications are not seen with anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and are unique to RTSA because of their design. Other complications are possibly due to the increased use of RTSA for conditions not easily treated with standard TSA. RTSA’s broadened indications, options in modularity, improved product development, and increased surgeon experience have propelled the RTSA implant towards preeminence in the world of shoulder surgery. Nevertheless, no implant is perfect, and the ability of RTSA to solve complex reconstructive problems comes at a cost of increased complications compared to its anatomic counterpart [Villacis et al. J Shoulder Elb Surg 25(6):927–35, 2016].

There are several commonly seen and clinically relevant complications after RTSA in the literature. Complications that are unique to RTSA include scapular notching, baseplate failure, scapular stress fractures, and component dissociation. Meanwhile, complications common to both RTSA and TSA, albeit with different incidences, include instability, infection, nerve injury, and vascular injury. Knowledge of these potential complications can help the treating surgeon avoid them, but also to provide guidance in order to evaluate, diagnose, and manage them.


Reverse arthroplasty Complications Management Revision Shoulder Baseplate failure Rotator cuff Scapular notching Infection Instability Nerve injury Vascular injury 


  1. 1.
    Flatow EL, Harrison AK. A history of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(9):2432–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gerber C, Pennington SD, Nyffeler RW. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009;17(5):284–95.. ReviewCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sirveaux F, Favard L, Oudet D, Huquet D, Walch G, Molé D. Grammont inverted total shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis with massive rupture of the cuff. Results of a multicentre study of 80 shoulders. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2004;86(3):388–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Villacis D, Sivasundaram L, Pannell WC, Heckmann N, Omid R, Hatch GF 3rd. Complication rate and implant survival for reverse shoulder arthroplasty versus total shoulder arthroplasty: results during the initial 2 years. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25(6):927–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alentorn-Geli E, Samitier G, Torrens C, Wright TW. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Part 2: systematic review of reoperations, revisions, problems, and complications. Int J Shoulder Surg. 2015;9(2):60–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rittmeister M, Kerschbaumer F. Grammont reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and nonreconstructible rotator cuff lesions. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2001;10:17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zumstein MA, Pinedo M, Old J, Boileau P. Problems, complications, reoperations, and revisions in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a systematic review. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2011;20(1):146–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wierks C, Skolasky RL, Ji JH, McFarland EG. Reverse total shoulder replacement: intraoperative and early postoperative complications. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467(1):225–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beazley J, Evans JP, Furness ND, Smith CD. Comparative learning curves for early complications in anatomic and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2018;100:491–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weber SC, Martin DR, Harrast JJ. Reverse shoulder replacement: incidence rates, complications and outcomes as reported by ABOS part 2 candidates. Paper #430. Presented at the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 2012 Annual Meeting. San Francisco.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bonnevialle N, Dauzères F, Toulemonde J, Elia F, Laffosse J-M, Mansat P. Periprosthetic shoulder infection: an overview. EFORT Open Rev. 2017;2(4):104–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Molé D, Favard L. Excentered scapulohumeral osteoarthritis [French]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2007;93(6 Suppl):37–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Singh JA, Sperling JW, Schleck C, Harmsen WS, Cofield RH. Periprosthetic infections after total shoulder arthroplasty: a 33-year perspective. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21(11):1534–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    de Cupis V, Chillemi C, Marinelli M. Grammont inverted prosthesis for the treatment of cuff tear arthropathy: a 6-year follow-up study. Orthopedics. 2008;31(5):447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Franceschini V, Chillemi C. Periprosthetic shoulder infection. Open Orthop J. 2013;7:243–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weber P, Utzschneider S, Sadoghi P, Andress H-J, Jansson V, Müller PE. Management of the infected shoulder prosthesis: a retrospective analysis and review of the literature. Int Orthop. 2011;35(3):365–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Osmon DR, Berbari EF, Berendt AR, Lew D, Zimmerli W, Steckelberg JM, Rao N, Hanssen A, Wilson WR, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infection: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(1):e1–e25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saltzman MD, Marecek GS, Edwards SL, Kalainov DM. Infection after shoulder surgery. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011;19(4):208–18.. ReviewPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dodson CC, Craig EV, Cordasco FA, Dines DM, Dines JS, Dicarlo E, Brause BD, Warren RF. Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder arthroplasty: a diagnostic challenge. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2010;19(2):303–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Frangiamore SJ, et al. Efficacy of preoperative aspirates in periprosthetic joint infections of the shoulder. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2017;26(5):e144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang AL, Feeley BT, Schwartz BS, Chung TT, Ma CB. Management of deep postoperative shoulder infections: is there a role for open biopsy during staged treatment? J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24(1):e15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ortmaier R, Resch H, Hitzl W, Mayer M, Stundner O, Tauber M. Treatment strategies for infection after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2014;24(5):723–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zavala JA, Clark JC, Kissenberth MJ, Tolan SJ, Hawkins RJ. Management of deep infection after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a case series. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21(10):1310–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marcheggiani Muccioli GM, Huri G, Grassi A, Roberti di Sarsina T, Carbone G, Guerra E, McFarland EG, Doral MN, Marcacci M, Zaffagnini S. Surgical treatment of infected shoulder arthroplasty. A systematic review. Int Orthop. 2017;41(4):823–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jacquot A, Sirveaux F, Roche O, Favard L, Clavert P, Molé D. Surgical management of the infected reversed shoulder arthroplasty: a French multicenter study of reoperation in 32 patients. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24(11):1713–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Beekman PD, Katusic D, Berghs BM, Karelse A, De Wilde L. One-stage revision for patients with a chronically infected reverse total shoulder replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92(6):817–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rojas J, Choi K, Joseph J, Srikumaran U, McFarland EG. Aseptic baseplate loosening after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a systematic review. Manuscript submitted for publication to JBJS reviews. 2018.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheung E, Willis M, Walker M, Clark R, Frankle MA. Complications in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011;19(7):439–49.. ReviewCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roberts CC, Ekelund AL, Renfree KJ, Liu PT, Chew FS. Radiologic assessment of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographics. 2007;27(1):223–35.. ReviewPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boileau P, Watkinson DJ, Hatzidakis AM, Balg F. Grammont reverse prosthesis: design, rationale, and biomechanics. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2005;14:147S–61S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Padegimas EM, Zmistowski BM, Restrepo C, Abboud JA, Lazarus MD, Ramsey ML, Williams GR, Namdari S. Instability after reverse Total shoulder arthroplasty: which patients dislocate? Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2016;45(7):E444–E45.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Teusink MJ, Pappou IP, Schwartz DG, Cottrell BJ, Frankle MA. Results of closed management of acute dislocation after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24(4):621–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chalmers B, Wagner E, Sperling J, Cofield R, Sanchez-Sotelo J. Treatment and outcomes of reverse shoulder arthroplasty dislocations. J Shoulder Elbow Arthroplasty. 2017;1:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gallo RA, Gamradt SC, Mattern CJ, Cordasco FA, Craig EV, Dines DM, Warren RF, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service at the Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY. Instability after reverse total shoulder replacement. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011;20(4):584–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gutiérrez S, Levy JC, Frankle MA, Cuff D, Keller TS, Pupello DR, Lee WE 3rd. Evaluation of abduction range of motion and avoidance of inferior scapular impingement in a reverse shoulder model. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2008;17(4):608–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kolmodin J, Davidson IU, Jun BJ, Sodhi N, Subhas N, Patterson TE, Li ZM, Iannotti JP, Ricchetti ET. Scapular notching after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: prediction using patient-specific osseous anatomy, implant location, and shoulder motion. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018;100(13):1095–1103. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Huri G, Familiari F, Salari N, Petersen SA, Doral MN, McFarland EG. Prosthetic design of reverse shoulder arthroplasty contributes to scapular notching and instability. World J Orthop. 2016;7(11):738–45. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Feeley BT, Zhang AL, Barry JJ, et al. Decreased scapular notching with lateralization and inferior baseplate placement in reverse shoulder arthroplasty with high humeral inclination. Int J Shoulder Surg. 2014;8(3):65–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lévigne C, Boileau P, Favard L, Garaud P, Molé D, Sirveaux F, Walch G. Scapular notching in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2008;17(6):925–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Simovitch RW, Zumstein MA, Lohri E, Helmy N, Gerber C. Predictors of scapular notching in patients managed with the Delta III reverse total shoulder replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(3):588–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Werner CM, Steinmann PA, Gilbart M, Gerber C. Treatment of painful pseudoparesis due to irreparable rotator cuff dysfunction with the Delta III reverse-ball-and-socket total shoulder prosthesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(7):1476–86.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vanhove B, Beugnies A. Grammont’s reverse shoulder prosthesis for rotator cuffarthropathy. A retrospective study of 32 cases. Acta Orthop Belg. 2004;70(3):219–25.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lévigne C, Garret J, Boileau P, Alami G, Favard L, Walch G. Scapular notching in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: is it important to avoid it and how? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(9):2512–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Boileau P, Gonzalez JF, Chuinard C, Bicknell R, Walch G. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty after failed rotator cuff surgery. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18(4):600–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sadoghi P, Leithner A, Vavken P, et al. Infraglenoidal scapular notching in reverse total shoulder replacement: a prospective series of 60 cases and systematic review of the literature. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mollon B, Mahure SA, Roche CP, Zuckerman JD. Impact of scapular notching on clinical outcomes after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: an analysis of 476 shoulders. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2017;26(7):1253–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nyffeler RW, Werner CM, Gerber C. Biomechanical relevance of glenoid component positioning in the reverse Delta III total shoulder prosthesis. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2005;14(5):524–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bigorre N, Lancigu R, Bizot P, Hubert L. Predictive factors of scapular notching in patients with reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2014;100(7):711–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kempton LB, Balasubramaniam M, Ankerson E, Wiater JM. A radiographic analysis of the effects of glenosphere position on scapular notching following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2011;20(6):968–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Young-Kyu K, Jun-Song W, Chang-Kyu P, Jong-Geun K. Evaluating scapular notching after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Clin Shoulder Elbow. 2015;18:14.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Berhouet J, Garaud P, Favard L. Evaluation of the role of glenosphere design and humeral component retroversion in avoiding scapular notching during reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2014;23(2):151–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Geli E, Samitier G, Torrens C, Wright TW. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Part 2: systematic review of reoperations, revisions, problems, and complications. Int J Shoulder Surg. 2015;9(2):60–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lawrence C, Williams GR, Namdari S. Influence of glenosphere design on outcomes and complications of reverse arthroplasty: a systematic review. Clin Orthop Surg. 2016;8(3):288–97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Frankle M, Siegal S, Pupello D, Saleem A, Mighell M, Vasey M. The reverse shoulder prosthesis for glenohumeral arthritis associated with severe rotator cuff deficiency. A minimum two-year follow-up study of sixty patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(8):1697–705.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stephens BC, Simon P, Clark RE, Christmas KN, Stone GP, Lorenzetti AJ, Frankle MA. Revision for a failed reverse: a 12-year review of a lateralized implant. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25(5):e115–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bitzer A, Rojas J, Patten I, Joseph J, McFarland E. Incidence and risk factors for aseptic baseplate loosening of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2018;27(12):2145–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Formaini NT, Everding NG, Levy JC, Santoni BG, Nayak AN, Wilson C, Cabezas AF. The effect of glenoid bone loss on reverse shoulder arthroplasty baseplate fixation. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24(11):e312–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Harman M, Frankle M, Vasey M, Banks S. Initial glenoid component fixation in “reverse” total shoulder arthroplasty: a biomechanical evaluation. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2005;14:S162–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Woodruff MJ, Cohen AP, Bradley JG. Arthroplasty of the shoulder in rheumatoid arthritis with rotator cuff dysfunction. Int Orthop. 2003;27(1):7–10.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cuff D, Pupello D, Virani N, Levy J, Frankle M. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of rotator cuff deficiency. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(6):1244–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Farshad M, Gerber C. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty-from the most to the least common complication. Int Orthop. 2010;34(8):1075–82. Epub 2010 Sep 25. Review. Erratum in: Int Orthop. 2011;35(3):455CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wagner E, Houdek MT, Griffith T, Elhassan BT, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Sperling JW, Cofield RH. Glenoid bone-grafting in revision to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015;97(20):1653–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Walker M, Willis MP, Brooks JP, Pupello D, Mulieri PJ, Frankle MA. The use of the reverse shoulder arthroplasty for treatment of failed total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21(4):514–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jones RB, Wright TW, Zuckerman JD. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with structural bone grafting of large glenoid defects. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25(9):1425–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Muh SJ, Streit JJ, Lenarz CJ, McCrum C, Wanner JP, Shishani Y, Moraga C, Nowinski RJ, Edwards TB, Warner JJ, Walch G, Gobezie R. Resection arthroplasty for failed shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22(2):247–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cuff D, Levy JC, Gutiérrez S, Frankle MA. Torsional stability of modular and non-modular reverse shoulder humeral components in a proximal humeral bone loss model. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2011;20(4):646–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Boileau P. Complications and revision of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2016;102(1 Suppl):S33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chacon A, Virani N, Shannon R, Levy JC, Pupello D, Frankle M. Revision arthroplasty with use of a reverse shoulder prosthesis-allograft composite. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91(1):119–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Budge MD, Moravek JE, Zimel MN, Nolan EM, Wiater JM. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of failed shoulder arthroplasty with proximal humeral bone loss: is allograft augmentation necessary? J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22(6):739–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nelson GN, Davis DE, Namdari S. Outcomes in the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection after shoulder arthroplasty: a systematic review. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25(8):1337–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wahlquist TC, Hunt AF, Braman JP. Acromial base fractures after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: report of five cases. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2011;20(7):1178–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Walch G, Mottier F, Wall B, Boileau P, Molé D, Favard L. Acromial insufficiency in reverse shoulder arthroplasties. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18(3):495–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Anakwenze OA, Pifer MA, Singh A. Clavicle stress fracture after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2014;23(7):e170–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Anakwenze OA, Kancherla VK, Carolan GF, Abboud J. Coracoid fracture after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a report of 2 cases. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2015;44(11):E469–72.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mayne IP, Bell SN, Wright W, Coghlan JA. Acromial and scapular spine fractures after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Shoulder Elbow. 2016;8(2):90–100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Otto RJ, Virani NA, Levy JC, Nigro PT, Cuff DJ, Frankle MA. Scapular fractures after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: evaluation of risk factors and the reliability of a proposed classification. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22(11):1514–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kennon JC, Lu C, McGee-Lawrence ME, Crosby LA. Scapula fracture incidence in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty using screws above or below metaglene central cage: clinical and biomechanical outcomes. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2017;26(6):1023–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Levy JC, Anderson C, Samson A. Classification of postoperative acromial fractures following reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95(15):e104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Crosby LA, Hamilton A, Twiss T. Scapula fractures after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: classification and treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(9):2544–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hattrup SJ. The influence of postoperative acromial and scapular spine fractures on the results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Orthopedics. 2010;33(5):20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nady H, Patrick C, James F, D’Alessandro DF. Acromial fracture after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2011;40:E125–9.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    De Wilde L, Walch G. Humeral prosthetic failure of reversed total shoulder arthroplasty: a report of three cases. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2006;15(2):260–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Scarlat MM. Complications with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty and recent evolutions. Int Orthop. 2013;37(5):843–51. Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nizlan NM, Campbell PT, Skirving AP. Dissociated polyethylene liner after a reverse shoulder replacement: a case report. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18(5):e26–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Middernacht B, De Wilde L, Molé D, Favard L, Debeer P. Glenosphere disengagement: a potentially serious default in reverse shoulder surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(4):892–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cusick MC, Hussey MM, Steen BM, Hartzler RU, Clark RE, Cuff DJ, Cabezas AF, Santoni BG, Frankle MA. Glenosphere dissociation after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24(7):1061–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lädermann A, Lübbeke A, Mélis B, Stern R, Christofilopoulos P, Bacle G, Walch G. Prevalence of neurologic lesions after total shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(14):1288–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    McFarland EG, Caicedo JC, Guitterez MI, Sherbondy PS, Kim TK. The anatomic relationship of the brachial plexus and axillary artery to the glenoid. Implications for anterior shoulder surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2001;29(6):729–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bryan WJ, Schauder K, Tullos HS. The axillary nerve and its relationship to common sports medicine shoulder procedures. Am J Sports Med. 1986;14(2):113–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lädermann A, Stimec BV, Denard PJ, Cunningham G, Collin P, Fasel JH. Injury to the axillary nerve after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: an anatomical study. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2014;100(1):105–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Parisien RL, Yi PH, Hou L, Li X, Jawa A. The risk of nerve injury during anatomical and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: an intraoperative neuromonitoring study. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25(7):1122–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Van Hoof T, Gomes GT, Audenaert E, Verstraete K, Kerckaert I, D’Herde K. 3D computerized model for measuring strain and displacement of the brachial plexus following placement of reverse shoulder prosthesis. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291(9):1173–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wingert NC, Beck JD, Harter GD. Avulsive axillary artery injury in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Orthopedics. 2014;37(1):e92–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ghanem OM, Sacco J, Heitmiller RF, Gashti SM. Delayed axillary artery occlusion after reverse Total shoulder arthroplasty. Case Rep Orthop. 2016;2016:5463514.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Willis AA, Warren RF, Craig EV, Adler RS, Cordasco FA, Lyman S, Fealy S. Deep vein thrombosis after reconstructive shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective observational study. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18(1):100–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tashjian RZ, Lilly DT, Isaacson AM, Georgopoulos CE, Bettwieser SP, Burks RT, Greis PE, Presson AP, Granger EK, Zhang Y. Incidence of and risk factors for symptomatic venous thromboembolism after shoulder arthroplasty. Am J Orthop. 2016;45(6):E379–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Boulahia A, Edwards TB, Walch G, Baratta RV. Early results of a reverse design prosthesis in the treatment of arthritis of the shoulder in elderly patients with a large rotator cuff tear. Orthopedics. 2002;25(2):129–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zhou HS, Chung JS, Yi PH, Li X, Price MD. Management of complications after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2015;8(1):92–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Bitzer
    • 1
  • Ronak Kotian
    • 2
  • Jorge Rojas
    • 1
  • Edward G. McFarland
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Bangalore Medical College and Research InstituteBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Shoulder and Elbow SurgeryThe Johns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations