Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries

  • Onur Bilge
  • Nazım Karalezli
  • Gazi Huri
  • Mahmut Nedim Doral


Acromioclavicular joint injuries are relatively frequent. The mechanism of injury can be either indirect trauma or more frequently direct trauma to the superolateral border of the shoulder. In order not to miss these injuries in clinics, history taking and careful physical examination are necessary. For the current management of AC joint injuries, nonsurgical and surgical methods are present. Currently, low-grade (I and II) and high-grade (IV, V, and VI) dislocations are managed conservatively and surgically, respectively. Regarding type III AC dislocation, although the best method has not been defined yet, nonsurgical treatment may be chosen as an initial management in patients with low expectations and low level of activities, and surgery should be reserved for active, young patients with high expectations in daily work and sports and for patients unresponsive to nonsurgical treatment. As a future prospect, higher level of evidence and comparative biomechanical and clinical studies are needed to clarify the uncertainty of choosing the best method of surgical treatment.


Acromioclavicular joint Coracoclavicular ligaments Acromioclavicular ligaments Anatomical reconstruction Arthroscopy 



Conflict of interest: None.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Onur Bilge
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nazım Karalezli
    • 3
  • Gazi Huri
    • 4
  • Mahmut Nedim Doral
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyKonya Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Faculty of MedicineKonyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Sports MedicineKonya Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Faculty of MedicineKonyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyMuğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Faculty of MedicineMuglaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyHacettepe University, Faculty of MedicineAnkaraTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyUfuk University, Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Rıdvan Ege HospitalAnkaraTurkey

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