Proper Implementation of Website Features Affecting the Use of Screen Readers

  • Brittani S. WashingtonEmail author
  • Jinjuan Heidi FengEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 972)


This paper reports a study that evaluated 96 non-profit organization’s websites located on the east coast of the United States. The websites were analyzed during November 2018 to January 2019. The results show that all the non-profit websites analyzed have rules that lack implementation, meaning the site’s developers might not understand the accessibility requirements of the rules or did not consider accessibility in the design of the website as it relates to screen readers. The findings may provide insight to web developers on addressing improper rule implementation identified using automated tools and manual tests.


Web accessibility Automated testing Manual testing Screen readers 


  1. 1.
    Accessibility of State and Local Government Websites to People with Disabilities (2008).
  2. 2.
    Automated Web Accessibility Testing Tools: The Strengths and Weaknesses of Automated Checkers (2017).
  3. 3.
    Barnicle, K.: Usability testing with screen reading technology in a windows environment, pp. 102–109. ACM Digital Library (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Functional Accessibility Evaluator 2.0 (2018).
  5. 5.
    IT Accessibility Laws and Policies (2018).
  6. 6.
    Lazar, J., Allen, A., Kleinman, J., Malarkey, C.: what frustrates screen reader users on the web: a study of 100 blind users. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 22(3), 247–269 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lazar, J., Gunderson, J., Golderfeld, Z.: Federal website WCAG 2.0 compliance and accessibility trends. In: Proceedings of 2017 ICT Accessibility Testing Symposium: Automated & Manual Testing, WCAG 2.1, and Beyond, pp. 27–34 (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    National Council of Nonprofits (2019).
  9. 9.
    On-the-Job Profile: A History of Accessibility at IBM (2004).
  10. 10.
    Sohaib, O., Kang, K.: E-commerce web accessibility for people with disabilities. In: Complexity in Information Systems Development: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Information Systems Development, pp. 87–100 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    University of New Hampshire: 2017 Disability Statistics Annual Report. National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Washington, B., Feng, J.: Web accessibility: where is the non-profit sector? In: Proceedings of the 2018 ICT Accessibility Testing Symposium: Mobile Testing, 508 Revision, and Beyond, pp. 165–172 (2018)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Williams, V., Gunderson, J., Foltz, T.: Investigating the potential of a dashboard for monitoring US federal website accessibility. In: Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 2428–2437 (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer and Information SciencesTowson UniversityTowsonUSA

Personalised recommendations