Enabling SMEs to Conduct User Research: Experience with and Adaption of UX Concept Exploration

  • Doris JanssenEmail author
  • Kathrin Pollmann
  • Nora Fronemann
  • David Blank
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 972)


We present an update from 6 years of practical use of UX Concept Exploration, a method for user research and user-driven innovation. After a short overview of the method, the paper describes experiences and suggests modifications of the method, where appropriate. Finally, we discuss guidelines to make the method usable in environments with only little UX expertise and limited resources, like small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) usually face.


Human-centered design User Experience User research User driven innovation SME Concept Testing User needs Positive design 



The work described in this paper has partially been supported by the project “Mittelstand 4.0-Kompetenzzentrum Usability”, funded by the German government.


  1. 1.
    Beck, K., Beedle, M., van Bennekum, A., Cockburn, A., Cunningham, W., Fowler, M., Grenning, J., Highsmith, J., Hunt, A., Jeffries, R.: Manifesto for agile software development (2001).
  2. 2.
    Chang, T.-R., Kaasinen, E.: Three user-driven innovation methods for co-creating cloud services. In: Campos et al. (ed.) INTERACT 2011. LNCS 6949, pp. 66–83 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Diefenbach, S., Hassenzahl, M.: Psychologie in der nutzerzentrierten Produktgestaltung. Mensch-Technik-Interaktion-Erlebnis. Die Wirtschaftspsychologie. Springer, Heidelberg (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fronemann, N., Peissner, M.: User experience concept exploration. User needs as a source for innovation. In: Roto, V. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Fun, Fast, Foundational, Helsinki, Finland, 26–30 October 2014, pp. 727–736. ACM, New York (2014).
  5. 5.
    Gaver, B., Dunne, T., Pacenti, E.: Design: cultural probes. Interactions 6(1), 21–29 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hassenzahl, M., Diefenbach, S., Göritz, A.: Needs, affect, and interactive products – facets of user experience. Interact. Comput. 22(5), 353–362 (2010). Scholar
  7. 7.
    ISO: Ergonomics of human–system interaction—Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems, 13.180, 35.180, 9241-210. Beuth, Berlin (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kahneman, D.: Objective happiness. In: Well-Being. The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, pp. 3–25 (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krüger, A.E., Peissner, M., Fronemann, N., Pollmann, K.: Building ideas. In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 1–6. ACM, New York (2016).
  10. 10.
    Plattner, H., Meinel, C., Weinberg, U.: Design Thinking. Innovation lernen - Ideenwelten eröffnen. FinanzBuch Verlag GmbH, München (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pollmann, K., Fronemann, N., Krüger, A.E., Peissner, M.: PosiTec. How to adopt a positive, need-based design approach. In: Marcus, A., Wang, W. (eds.) Design, User Experience, and Usability: Users, Contexts and Case Studies. 7th International Conference, DUXU 2018, Held as Part of HCI International 2018, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 15–20 July 2018, Proceedings, Part III. LNCS, vol. 10920. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2018)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reynolds, T.J., Gutman, J.: Laddering theory method, analysis, and interpretation. J. Advertising Res. 28(1), 11–31 (1988)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rosted, J.: User-driven innovation. Results and recommendations # 13. The Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs’ Division for Research and Analysis FORA (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sheldon, K.M., Kim, Y., Elliot, A.J., Kasser, T.: What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 80(2), 325–339 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Spath, D., Peissner, M., Sproll, S.: Methods from neuroscience for measuring user experience in work environments. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2010) (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sproll, S., Peissner, M., Sturm, C.: From product concept to user experience: exploring UX potentials at early product stages. In: Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Extending Boundaries, NordiCHI 2010, pp. 473–482. ACM, New York (2010).
  17. 17.
    Sproll, S., Peissner, M., Sturm, C., Burmester, M.: UX concept testing: integration von user experience in frühen Phasen der Produktentwicklung. In: Usability Professionals 2010. Jahresband 2010 der Workshops der German Usability Professionals’ Association e.V. Usability Professionals 2010. Fraunhofer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, pp. 1–6 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stickel, O., Ogonowski, C., Jakobi, T., Stevens, G., Pipek, V., Wulf, V.: Praktiken der Nutzerintegration im Entwicklungsprozess von KMU. Mensch und Computer 2015–Proceedings (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doris Janssen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kathrin Pollmann
    • 2
  • Nora Fronemann
    • 1
  • David Blank
    • 1
  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAOStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Human Factors and Technology Management IATUniversity of StuttgartStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations