User Centered Design Strategies for Improving Visualization of Sensor Data in Rotorcraft Cockpit Displays for Degraded Visual Environment Operations

  • Bradley M. DavisEmail author
  • Kelly Dickerson
  • Samineh C. Gillmore
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 972)


Degraded Visual Environments (DVE) can be deadly for rotorcraft pilots. Increasingly the risks of DVE operations are mitigated through visualizing environmental hazards using advanced sensing technologies. Often times DVE occurs during periods of high workload, further increasing the risk to both pilots and aircraft. With advanced sensing capabilities comes better information but also the risk of information overload, attentional tunneling, and better external situation awareness (SA) at the expense of situation awareness for aircraft state. The present paper discusses a user centered design (UCD) approach that blends several common methodologies to soliciting user feedback on early sensor data visualization concepts. This paper will discuss the results and implications of this particular UCD effort and provide a viewpoint on UCD for military systems, and how this approach may differ from UCD conventions established in other industries.


User centered design Aviation Degraded visual environment Sensor visualization Human systems integration Human factors engineering 


  1. 1.
    Couch, M., Lindell, D.: Study on rotorcraft survivability. Presented at the American Helicopter Society (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Minor, J., Morford, Z., Harrington, W.: Sensor data/cueing continuum for rotorcraft degraded visual environment operations. In: Degraded Environments: Sensing, Processing, and Display, vol. 10197 (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Szoboszlay, Z.P., Davis, B., Fujizawa, B., Minor, J., Osmon, M., Morford, Z.G.: Degraded visual environment mitigation (DVE-M) program, Yuma 2016 flight trials in brownout. In: 73th American Helicopter Society Annual Forum, Fort Worth (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shanker, T., Richtel, M.: In new military, data overload can be deadly. The New York Times (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Featherstone, C., Van der Poel, E.: Human creativity in the data visualization pipeline-a systematic literature review (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abras, C., Maloney-Krichmar, D., Preece, J.: User-centered design. In: Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 445–456. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Norman, D.A., Draper, S.W.: User centred systems design, Hillsdale, NJ (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    ISO/IEC. 13407 Human-Centred Design Processes for Interactive Systems, ISO/IEC 13407: 1999 (E) (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ISO/IEC. 9126 Software Product Quality - Quality Model, ISO/IEC 9126: 2000 (E) (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jokela, T., Iivari, N., Matero, J., Karukka, M.: The standard of user-centered design and the standard definition of usability: analyzing ISO 13407 against ISO 9241-11. In: Proceedings of the Latin American Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 53–60. ACM (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sy, D.: Adapting usability investigations for agile user-centered design. J. Usability Stud. 2(3), 112–132 (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gordon, C.C., Blackwell, C.L., Bradtmiller, B., Parham, J.L., Barrientos, P., Paquette, S.P., Corner, B.D., Carson, J.M., Venezia, J.C., Kristensen, S.: 2012 Anthropometric survey of US army pilot personnel: methods and summary statistics (No. NATICK/TR-16/013). Army NATICK Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center MA (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gianaros, P.J., Muth, E.R., Mordkoff, J.T., Levine, M.E., Stern, R.M.: A questionnaire for the assessment of the multiple dimensions of motion sickness. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 72(2), 115–119 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Feltman, K.A., Curry, I., Bernhardt, K.A., Hayes, A., Kirby, S., Davis, B., Sapp, J., Durbin, D., Hartnett, G.: Integrated cueing environment: simulation event four (No. USAARL 2018-16). Army Aeromedical Research Lab, Fort Rucker (2018)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fujizawa, B.T., Szoboszlay, Z.P., Flanigen, P.R., Minor, J.S., Morford, Z.G., Davis, B.M.: Degraded visual environment mitigation program NATO flight trials: U.S. army flight test and results. Technical report (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley M. Davis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kelly Dickerson
    • 2
  • Samineh C. Gillmore
    • 3
  1. 1.Human Research and Engineering DirectorateU.S. Army Research LaboratoryRedstone ArsenalUSA
  2. 2.Human Research and Engineering DirectorateU.S. Army Research LaboratoryAberdeen Proving GroundUSA
  3. 3.Systems Management and Production CenterUniversity of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations