Advertisement

Shock

  • Jose Mariano T. TanEmail author
  • Michael P. Brunner
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)

Abstract

Shock is a pathophysiological state characterized by inadequate tissue oxygenation due to an imbalance of oxygen delivery and consumption. It is a life-threatening condition that may lead to cellular death and vital organ dysfunction. Shock is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There are four major categories of shock: cardiogenic, hypovolemic, distributive, and obstructive. Hemodynamic data obtained from intra-arterial pressure monitoring and pulmonary artery catheterization provide additional information to aid in the optimal assessment of shock.

Keywords

Catheter Hemodynamics Lactate Shock Waveform 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Venu Menon for his contribution to the previous edition of this chapter.

References

  1. 1.
    Goldberg RJ, Gore JM, Alpert JS, et al. Cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. Incidence and mortality from a community-wide perspective, 1975 to 1988. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1117–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goldberg RJ, Spencer FA, Gore JM, Lessard D, Yarzebski J. Thirty-year trends (1975 to 2005) in the magnitude of, management of, and hospital death rates associated with cardiogenic shock in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a population-based perspective. Circulation. 2009;119:1211–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holmes DR Jr, Berger PB, Hochman JS, et al. Cardiogenic shock in patients with acute ischemic syndromes with and without ST-segment elevation. Circulation. 1999;100:2067–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Luca L, Olivari Z, Farina A, Gonzini L, Lucci D, Di Chiara A, Casella G, Chiarella F, Boccanelli A, Di Pasquale G, De Servi S, Bovenzi FM, Gulizia MM, Savonitto S. Temporal trends in the epidemiology, management, and outcome of patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute coronary syndromes. Eur J Heart Fail. 2015;17(11):1124–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Novosad SA, Sapiano MR, Grigg C, et al. Vital signs: epidemiology of sepsis: prevalence of health care factors and opportunities for prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:864–9.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6533e1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gaieski DF, Edwards JM, Kallan MJ, Carr BG. Benchmarking the incidence and mortality of severe sepsis in the United States. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(5):1167–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crawford MH. Current diagnosis & treatment cardiology. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Menon V, White H, LeJemtel T, Webb JG, Sleeper LA, Hochman JS. The clinical profile of patients with suspected cardiogenic shock due to predominant left ventricular failure: a report from the SHOCK trial registry. SHould we emergently revascularize Occluded Coronaries in cardiogenic shocK? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36:1071–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kinch JW, Ryan TJ. Right ventricular infarction. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1211–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hochman JS. Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: expanding the paradigm. Circulation. 2003;107:2998–3002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kohsaka S, Menon V, Lowe AM, et al. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome after acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1643–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Killip T III, Kimball JT. Treatment of myocardial infarction in a coronary care unit. A two year experience with 250 patients. Am J Cardiol. 1967;20:457–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McGee S, Abernethy WB III, Simel DL. The rational clinical examination. Is this patient hypovolemic? JAMA. 1999;281:1022–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:296–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Antman EM, Anbe DT, Armstrong PW, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction—executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1999 guidelines for the Management of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction). Can J Cardiol. 2004;20:977–1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Binanay C, Califf RM, Hasselblad V, et al. Evaluation study of congestive heart failure and pulmonary artery catheterization effectiveness: the ESCAPE trial. JAMA. 2005;294:1625–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Allen LA, Rogers JG, Warnica JW, et al. High mortality without ESCAPE: the registry of heart failure patients receiving pulmonary artery catheters without randomization. J Card Fail. 2008;14:661–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shah MR, Hasselblad V, Stevenson LW, et al. Impact of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA. 2005;294:1664–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hasdai D, Holmes DR Jr, Califf RM, et al. Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: predictors of death. GUSTO investigators global utilization of streptokinase and tissue-plasminogen activator for occluded coronary arteries. Am Heart J. 1999;138:21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Iberti TJ, Fischer EP, Leibowitz AB, Panacek EA, Silverstein JH, Albertson TE. A multicenter study of physicians’ knowledge of the pulmonary artery catheter. Pulmonary artery catheter study group. JAMA. 1990;264:2928–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey DE Jr, Drazner MH, Fonarow GC, Geraci SA, Horwich T, Januzzi JL, Johnson MR, Kasper EK, Levy WC, Masoudi FA, McBride PE, McMurray JJV, Mitchell JE, Peterson PN, Riegel B, Sam F, Stevenson LW, Tang WHW, Tsai EJ, Wilkoff BL. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:1495–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hochman JS, Buller CE, Sleeper LA, et al. Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction—etiologies, management and outcome: a report from the SHOCK trial registry. SHould we emergently revascularize occluded coronaries for cardiogenic shocK? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36:1063–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stevenson LW, Perloff JK. The limited reliability of physical signs for estimating hemodynamics in chronic heart failure. JAMA. 1989;261:884–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lab MJ, Lee JA. Changes in intracellular calcium during mechanical alternans in isolated ferret ventricular muscle. Circ Res. 1990;66:585–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fincke R, Hochman JS, Lowe AM, et al. Cardiac power is the strongest hemodynamic correlate of mortality in cardiogenic shock: a report from the SHOCK trial registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:340–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hochman JS, Ohman EM. Pathophysiology. In: Cardiogenic shock. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spectrum Health Medical GroupGrand RapidsUSA

Personalised recommendations