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Echocardiography

  • Omeed ZardkoohiEmail author
  • Richard A. Grimm
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)

Abstract

In addition to being a favored diagnostic tool for structure and function, echocardiography is the noninvasive alternative to cardiac catheterization for the assessment of various hemodynamic parameters, including intracardiac pressures, cardiac output, vascular resistance, shunt fraction, and valvular lesions. An understanding of Doppler physics, the Bernoulli equation, imaging technique, and limitations of echocardiography are critical for its successful application. This chapter begins with a review of the basic principles of physics relevant to echocardiography. Using these principles, we demonstrate how to estimate intracardiac pressures, following the traveled path of the Swan–Ganz catheter: right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary artery wedge. Thereafter, we will apply fundamental concepts including the Doppler equation, Bernoulli principle, continuity equation, PISA, and other principles to assess specific valve lesions. Cases will be presented to reinforce concepts discussed in the text.

Keywords

Catheter Echocardiography Respiration Hemodynamics Cardiomyopathy 

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Suggested Reading

  1. Hatle L, Angelsen B. Doppler ultrasound in cardiology: physical principles and clinical applications. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1985. p. 331.Google Scholar
  2. Quinones MA, Otto CM, Stoddard M, Waggoner A, Zoghbi WA, Doppler Quantification Task Force of the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the American Society of Echocardiography. Recommendations for quantification of Doppler echocardiography: a report from the Doppler Quantification Task Force of the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2002;15(2):167–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumgartner H, Hung J, Bermejo J, et al. Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009;22(1):1–23; 101–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Zoghbi WA, Enriquez-Sarano M, Foster E, et al. Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2003;16(7):777–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northwestern MedicineChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Cleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

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