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Redox Mechanisms and Plant Tolerance Under Heavy Metal Stress: Genes and Regulatory Networks

  • Muhammad Shahid
  • Natasha
  • Sana Khalid
  • Ghulam Abbas
  • Nabeel Khan Niazi
  • Behzad Murtaza
  • Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
  • Irshad Bibi
Chapter

Abstract

Heavy metal contamination of environment is becoming increasingly serious with rapid and unchecked industrialization and urbanization. Soil contamination with heavy metals and their associated health risks have been reported in various areas globally. Plants accumulate heavy metals from soil under contaminated environments. Inside plants, heavy metals provoke numerous biochemical alterations via different metabolic processes. These biochemical alterations in plants are primarily via redox reactions which cause activation of different enzymes, modification of cell membrane permeability, replacement of essential ions, and reaction with functional groups of different molecules. Under heavy metal stress, plants have evolved numerous defense processes to tolerate heavy metal toxicity, such as sequestration into vacuoles, activation of several antioxidants, and chelation by phytochelatin/glutathione. All the biochemical changes, in plants, are mediated by a complex regulatory network of genes. The expression or overexpression of these genes and enzymes under metal stress has been revealed in some recent studies. Moreover, the heavy metal transporter proteins and transcription factors are involved in heavy metal acquisition/tolerance/homeostasis. In this chapter, we have presented an overall relation of redox mechanism and plant tolerance under heavy metal stress. We highlight the heavy metal contamination in environment, their sources in soil, accumulation by plants, their toxic effects on plants, and detoxification processes.

Keywords

Heavy metal stress Plant physiology Redox reactions Plant defense Biochemical changes 

Abbreviations

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

CAT

Catalase

CDF

Cation diffusion facilitator

FER

Ferritin Fe (III) binding

GPX

Guaiacol peroxidase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GSH

Glutathione

HMA

Heavy metal ATPase

IREG

Iron-regulated transporter family

NAS

Nicotinamine synthase

NP-SH

Thiol

NRAMP

Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SAMS

S-adenosyl-methionine synthetase

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

YSL

Yellow-stripe-like transporter

ZIP

ZRT, IRT-like protein

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Shahid
    • 1
  • Natasha
    • 1
  • Sana Khalid
    • 1
  • Ghulam Abbas
    • 1
  • Nabeel Khan Niazi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Behzad Murtaza
    • 1
  • Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
    • 4
  • Irshad Bibi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS University IslamabadVehariPakistan
  2. 2.School of Civil Engineering and SurveyingUniversity of Southern QueenslandToowoombaAustralia
  3. 3.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Center of Excellence in Environmental StudiesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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