Advertisement

Choice of Minimally Invasive Approaches: A Review of Unique Risks and Complications

  • William P. Mosenthal
  • Srikanth N. Divi
  • Jason L. Dickherber
  • Michael J. LeeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The goal of minimally invasive spine surgery is to obtain outcomes equivalent or superior to that of open procedures through a less morbid approach that features minimal disruption to the patient’s native anatomy. Tubular retractor systems and microscopes have become staples in the armamentarium of the minimally invasive spine surgeon and, as with any technological innovation, come with their own set of advantages and disadvantages.

Working through a smaller surgical footprint makes mastery of the local anatomy of paramount importance. Many of the anatomical structures that surgeons rely on for reference during open approaches are not visible during minimally invasive approaches and can lead to surgeon disorientation. It is crucial that surgeons develop the ability to convert two-dimensional microscopic images to a three-dimensional representation of the surgical field.

Minimally invasive spine surgeons have to adjust to the changes in control and tactile feedback afforded by the longer instruments required to work through narrow tubular retractors. Complications that occur during the approach, injury to the dura or vascular structures, for example, can be more difficult to manage within the confines of a minimally invasive approach.

Minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) are technically demanding procedures that have a substantial but surmountable learning curve. The onus is on the minimally invasive spinal surgeon to develop a clear understanding of the complications associated with the various minimally invasive approaches and develop the ability to mitigate the risk of complications and manage them if they do occur.

Keywords

Approach complications MIS approach MIS complications ACDF approach ACDF complications Transpleural approach Transpleural complications Retropleural approach Retropleural complications Arthrodesis approach Arthrodesis complications Foraminotomy approach Foraminotomy complications Laminotomy approach Laminotomy complications Laminoforaminotomy approach Laminoforaminotomy complications Discectomy approach Discectomy complications Microdiscectomy approach Microdiscectomy complications Transforaminal approach Transforaminal complications TLIF approach TLIF complications PLIF approach PLIF complications Transpsoas approach Transpsoas complications DLIF approach DLIF complications XLIF approach XLIF complications LLIF approach LLIF complications ALIF approach ALIF complications OLIF approach OLIF complications ATP approach ATP complications AxiaLif approach AxiaLif complications Presacral approach Presacral complications Interbody approach Interbody complications Posterior approach Posterior complications Anterior approach Anterior complications Cervical approach Cervical complications Thoracic approach Thoracic complications Lumbar approach Lumbar complications 

References

  1. 1.
    Park Y, Ha JW. Comparison of one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion performed with a minimally invasive approach or a traditional open approach. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:537–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wong AP, Smith ZA, Stadler JA 3rd, Hu XY, Yan JZ, Li XF, Lee JH, Khoo LT. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF): surgical technique, long-term 4-year prospective outcomes, and complications compared with an open TLIF cohort. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2014;25:279–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Joseph JR, Smith BW, La Marca F, Park P. Comparison of complication rates of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and lateral lumbar interbody fusion: a systematic review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus. 2015;39:E4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cheung JP, Luk KD. Complications of anterior and posterior cervical spine surgery. Asian Spine J. 2016;10:385–400.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jung A, Schramm J. How to reduce recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in anterior cervical spine surgery: a prospective observational study. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:10–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tan TP, Govindarajulu AP, Massicotte EM, Venkatraghavan L. Vocal cord palsy after anterior cervical spine surgery: a qualitative systematic review. Spine J. 2014;14:1332–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yao N, Wang C, Wang W, Wang L. Full-endoscopic technique for anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion: 5-year follow-up results of 67 cases. Eur Spine J. 2011;20:899–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pollard ME, Little PW. Changes in carotid artery blood flow during anterior cervical spine surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:152–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kotil K, Bilge T. Prospective study of anterior cervical microforaminotomy for cervical radiculopathy. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:749–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jho HD. Microsurgical anterior cervical foraminotomy for radiculopathy: a new approach to cervical disc herniation. J Neurosurg. 1996;84:155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saringer W, Nöbauer I, Reddy M, Tschabitscher M, Horaczek A. Microsurgical anterior cervical foraminotomy (uncoforaminotomy) for unilateral radiculopathy: clinical results of a new technique. Acta Neurochir. 2002;144:685–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Balasubramanian C, Price R, Brydon H. Anterior cervical microforaminotomy for cervical radiculopathy—results and review. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2008;51:258–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pechlivanis I, Brenke C, Scholz M, Engelhardt M, Harders A, Schmieder K. Treatment of degenerative cervical disc disease with uncoforaminotomy—intermediate clinical outcome. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2008;51:211–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Park YK, Moon HJ, Kwon TH, Kim JH. Long-term outcomes following anterior foraminotomy for one- or two-level cervical radiculopathy. European Spine J. 2013;22:1489–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim MH. Clinical and radiological long-term outcomes of anterior microforaminotomy for cervical degenerative disease. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:1812–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hacker RJ, Miller CG. Failed anterior cervical foraminotomy. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:126–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ahn Y, Lee SH, Lee SC, Shin SW, Chung SE. Factors predicting excellent outcome of percutaneous cervical discectomy: analysis of 111 consecutive cases. Neuroradiology. 2004;46:378–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ahn Y, Lee SH, Shin SW. Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy: clinical outcome and radiographic changes. Photomed Laser Surg. 2005;23:362–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tzaan WC. Anterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy for cervical intervertebral disc herniation. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011;24:421–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee JH, Lee SH. Clinical and radiographic changes after percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy: a long-term follow-up. Photomed Laser Surg. 2014;32:663–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Skovrlj B, Qureshi SA. Minimally invasive cervical spine surgery. J Neurosurg Sci. 2017;61:325–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Celestre PC, Pazmiño PR, Mikhael MM, Wolf CF, Feldman LA, Lauryssen C, Wang JC. Minimally invasive approaches to the cervical spine. Orthop Clin N Am. 2012;43:137–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clark JG, Abdullah KG, Steinmetz MP, Benzel EC, Mroz TE. Minimally invasive versus open cervical Foraminotomy: a systematic review. Global Spine J. 2011;1:009–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Song Z, Zhang Z, Hao J, Shen J, Zhou N, Xu S, Ni W, Hu Z. Microsurgery or open cervical foraminotomy for cervical radiculopathy? A systematic review. Int Orthop. 2016;40:1335–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Winder MJ, Thomas KC. Minimally invasive versus open approach for cervical laminoforaminotomy. Can J Neurol Sci. 2011;38:262–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McAnany SJ, Kim JS, Overley SC, Baird EO, Anderson PA, Qureshi SA. A meta-analysis of cervical foraminotomy: open versus minimally-invasive techniques. Spine J. 2015;15:849–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Terai H, Suzuki A, Toyoda H, Yasuda H, Kaneda K, Katsutani H, Nakamura H. Tandem keyhole foraminotomy in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: retrospective review of 35 cases. J Orthop Surg Res. 2014;9:38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fessler RG, Khoo LT. Minimally invasive cervical microendoscopic foraminotomy: an initial clinical experience. Neurosurgery. 2002;51:S37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Adamson TE. Microendoscopic posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy for unilateral radiculopathy: results of a new technique in 100 cases. J Neurosurg. 2001;95:51–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Skovrlj B, Gologorsky Y, Haque R, Fessler RG, Qureshi SA. Complications, outcomes, and need for fusion after minimally invasive posterior cervical foraminotomy and microdiscectomy. Spine J. 2014;14:2405–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim CH, Kim KT, Chung CK, Park SB, Yang SH, Kim SM, Sung JK. Minimally invasive cervical foraminotomy and diskectomy for laterally located soft disk herniation. Eur Spine J. 2015;24:3005–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boehm H, Greiner-Perth R, El-Saghir H, Allam Y. A new minimally invasive posterior approach for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy: surgical technique and preliminary results. European Spine J. 2003;12:268–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hur JW, Kim JS, Shin MH, Ryu KS. Minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using tubular retractor: the technical note and early clinical outcome. Surg Neurol Int. 2014;5:34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eicker SO, Steiger HJ, El-Kathib M. A transtubular microsurgical approach to treat lateral cervical disc herniation. World Neurosurg. 2016;88:503–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Oh HS, Hwang BW, Park SJ, Hsieh CS, Lee SH. Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD): an analysis of outcome, causes of reoperation. World Neurosurg. 2017;102:583–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wu Z, Wu H, Wang H, Wu C, Xu W, Zhang L, Fan H, Cai J, Ma J. A rare complication after minimally invasive posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2016;16:172–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bydon M, Macki M, Kaloostian P, Sciubba DM, Wolinsky JP, Gokaslan ZL, Belzberg AJ, Bydon A, Witham TF. Incidence and prognostic factors of C5 palsy. Neurosurgery. 2014;74:595–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang MY, Levi AD. Minimally invasive lateral mass screw fixation in the cervical spine: initial clinical experience with long-term follow-up. Neurosurgery. 2006;58:907–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mikhael MM, Celestre PC, Wolf CF, Mroz TE, Wang JC. Minimally invasive cervical spine foraminotomy and lateral mass screw placement. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:E318–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim MK, Cho SM, You SH, Kim IB, Kwak DS. Hybrid technique for cervical pedicle screw placement. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015;40:1181–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kantelhardt SR, Keric N, Conrad J, Archavlis E, Giese A. Minimally invasive instrumentation of uncomplicated cervical fractures. Eur Spine J. 2016;25:127–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Arts MP, Bartels RH. Anterior or posterior approach of thoracic disc herniation? A comparative cohort of mini-transthoracic versus transpedicular discectomies. Spine J. 2014;14:1654–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yoshihara H. Surgical treatment for thoracic disc herniation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014;39:E406–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Angevin PD, McCormick PC. Retropleural thoracotomy. Technical note. Neurosurg Focus. 2001;10:ecp1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Faciszewski T, Winter RB, Lonstein JE, Denis F, Johnson L. The surgical and medical perioperative complications of anterior spinal fusion surgery in the thoracic and lumbar spine in adults. A review of 1223 procedures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1995;20:1592–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fessler RG, Sturgill M. Review: complications of surgery for thoracic disc disease. Surg Neurol. 1998;49:609–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Krauss WE. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1999;10:9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Burke TG, Caputy AJ. Treatment of thoracic disc herniation: evolution toward the minimally invasive thoracoscopic technique. Neurosurg Focus. 2000;9:e9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Eichholz KM, O’Toole JE, Fessler RG. Thoracic microendoscopic discectomy. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2006;17:441–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Deviren V, Kuelling FA, Poulter G, Pekmezci M. Minimal invasive anterolateral transthoracic transpleural approach. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011;24:E40–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McCormick PC. Retropleural approach to the thoracic and thoracolumbar spine. Neurosurgery. 1995;37:908–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dakwar E, Ahmadian A, Uribe JS. The anatomical relationship of the diaphragm to the thoracolumbar junction during the minimally invasive lateral extracoelomic (retropleural/retroperitoneal) approach. J Neurosurg: Spine. 2012;16:359–64.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kasliwal MK, Deutsch H. Minimally invasive Retropleural approach for central thoracic disc herniation. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2011;54:167–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Park MS, Deukmedjian AR, Uribe JS. Minimally invasive anterolateral corpectomy for spinal tumors. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2014;25:317–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nacar OA, Ulu MO, Pekmezci M, Deviren V. Surgical treatment of thoracic disc disease via minimally invasive lateral transthoracic trans/retropleural approach: analysis of 33 patients. Neurosurg Rev. 2013;36:455–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Uribe JS, Dakwar E, Cardona RF, Vale FL. Minimally invasive lateral retropleural thoracolumbar approach: cadaveric feasibility study and report of 4 clinical cases. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:32–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Uribe JS, Smith WD, Pimenta L, Härtl R, Dakwar E, Modhia UM, Pollock GA, Nagineni V, Smith R, Christian G, Oliveira L, Marchi L, Deviren V. Minimally invasive lateral approach for symptomatic thoracic disc herniation: initial multicenter clinical experience. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012;16:264–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moran C, Ali Z, McEvoy L, Bolger C. Mini–open retropleural transthoracic approach for the treatment of giant thoracic disc herniation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:E1079–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Binning MJ, Schmidt MH. Percutaneous placement of radiopaque markers at the pedicle of interest for preoperative localization of thoracic spine level. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:1821–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mack MJ, Regan JJ, Bobechko WP, Acuff TE. Application of thoracoscopy for diseases of the spine. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993;56:736–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rosenthal D, Dickman CA. Thoracoscopic microsurgical excision of herniated thoracic discs. J Neurosurg. 1998;89:224–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lall RR, Smith ZA, Wong AP, Miller D, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive thoracic corpectomy: surgical strategies for malignancy, trauma, and complex spinal pathologies. Minim Invasive Surg. 2012;2012:213791.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Elhadi AM, Zehri AH, Zaidi HA, Almefty KK, Preul MC, Theodore N, Dickman CA. Surgical efficacy of minimally invasive thoracic discectomy. J Clin Neurosci. 2015;22:1708–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cheung KM, Al Ghazi S. Approach-related complications of open versus thoracoscopic anterior exposures of the thoracic spine. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2008;16:343–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lee CY, Wu MH, Li YY, Cheng CC, Lee CY, Huang TJ. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and minimal access spinal surgery compared in anterior thoracic or thoracolumbar junctional spinal reconstruction: a case-control study and review of the literature. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:1–9.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Molina CA, Gokaslan ZL, Sciubba DM. A systematic review of the current role of minimally invasive spine surgery in the management of metastatic spine disease. Int J Surg Oncol. 2011;2011:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bransford RJ, Zhang F, Bellabarba C, Lee MJ. Treating thoracic-disc herniations: do we always have to go anteriorly? Evid Based Spine Care J. 2010;1:21–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lifshutz J, Lidar Z, Maiman D. Evolution of the lateral extracavitary approach to the spine. Neurosurg Focus. 2004;16:E12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Smith ZA, Li Z, Chen NF, Raphael D, Khoo LT. Minimally invasive lateral extracavitary corpectomy: cadaveric evaluation model and report of 3 clinical cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012;16:463–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jho HD. Endoscopic microscopic transpedicular thoracic discectomy. J Neurosurg. 1997;87:125–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Musacchio M, Patel N, Bagan B, Deutsch H, Vaccaro AR, Ratliff J. Minimally invasive thoracolumbar costotransversectomy and corpectomy via a dual-tube technique: evaluation in a cadaver model. Surg Technol Int. 2007;16:221–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Deutsch H, Boco T, Lobel J. Minimally invasive transpedicular vertebrectomy for metastatic disease to the thoracic spine. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2008;21:101–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chou D, Lu DC. Mini-open transpedicular corpectomies with expandable cage reconstruction. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chi JH, Dhall SS, Kanter AS, Mummaneni PV. The Mini-Open transpedicular thoracic discectomy: surgical technique and assessment. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25:E5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Regev GJ, Salame K, Behrbalk E, Keynan O, Lidar Z. Minimally invasive transforaminal, thoracic microscopic discectomy: technical report and preliminary results and complications. Spine J. 2012;12:570–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Choi KY, Eun SS, Lee SH, Lee HY. Percutaneous endoscopic thoracic discectomy; transforaminal approach. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2010;53:25–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stillerman CB, Chen TC, Day JD, Couldwell WT, Weiss MH. The transfacet pedicle-sparing approach for thoracic disc removal: cadaveric morphometric analysis and preliminary clinical experience. J Neurosurg. 1995;83:971–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Foley KT, Smith MM. Microendoscopic discectomy. Tech Neurosurg. 1997;4:301–7.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dasenbrock HH, Juraschek SP, Schultz LR, Witham TF, Sciubba DM, Wolinsky JP, Gokaslan ZL, Bydon A. The efficacy of minimally invasive discectomy compared with open discectomy: a meta-analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012;16:452–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shriver MF, Xie JJ, Tye EY, Rosenbaum BP, Kshettry VR, Benzel EC, Mroz TE. Lumbar microdiscectomy complication rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosurg Focus. 2015;39:E6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hussain NS, Perez-Cruet MJ. Complication management with minimally invasive spine procedures. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;31:E2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Guiot BH, Khoo LT, Fessler RG. A minimally invasive technique for decompression of the lumbar spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:432–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cloward RB. The treatment of ruptured lumbar intervertebral discs by vertebral body fusion. I. Indications, operative technique, after care. J Neurosurg. 1953;10:154–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Briggs H, Milligan P. Chip fusion of the low back following exploration of the spinal canal. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1944;26:125–30.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mobbs RJ, Phan K, Malham G, Seex K, Rao PJ. Lumbar interbody fusion: techniques, indications and comparison of interbody fusion options including PLIF, TLIF, MI-TLIF, OLIF/ATP, LLIF and ALIF. J Spine Surg. 2015;1:2–18.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zhang Q, Yuan Z, Zhou M, Liu H, Xu Y, Ren Y. A comparison of posterior lumbar interbody fusion and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a literature review and meta-analysis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014;15:367.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wu RH, Fraser JF, Hartl R. Minimal access versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: meta-analysis of fusion rates. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:2273–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Adogwa O, Carr K, Thompson P, Hoang K, Darlington T, Perez E, Fatemi P, Gottfried O, Cheng J, Isaacs RE. A prospective, multi-institutional comparative effectiveness study of lumbar spine surgery in morbidly obese patients: does minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion result in superior outcomes? World Neurosurg. 2015;83:860–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wong AP, Smith ZA, Nixon AT, Lawton CD, Dahdaleh NS, Wong RH, Auffinger B, Lam S, Song JK, Liu JC, Koski TR, Fessler RG. Intraoperative and perioperative complications in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a review of 513 patients. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015;22:487–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Goldstein CL, Macwan K, Sundararajan K, Rampersaud YR. Comparative outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for posterior lumbar fusion: a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014;472:1727–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ozgur BM, Aryan HE, Pimenta L, Taylor WR. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF): a novel surgical technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Spine J. 2006;6:435–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tubbs RI, Gabel B, Jeyamohan S, Moisi M, Chapman JR, Hanscom RD, Loukas M, Oskouian RJ, Tubbs RS. Relationship of the lumbar plexus branches to the lumbar spine: anatomical study with application to lateral approaches. Spine J. 2017;17:1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Smith WD, Youssef JA, Christian G, Serrano S, Hyde JA. Lumbarized sacrum as a relative contraindication for lateral transpsoas interbody fusion at L5–6. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2012;25:285–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cheng I, Briseno MR, Arrigo RT, Bains N, Ravi S, Tran A. Outcomes of two different techniques using the lateral approach for lumbar interbody arthrodesis. Global Spine J. 2015;5:308–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Isaacs RE, Hyde J, Goodrich JA, Rodgers WB, Phillips FM. A prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter evaluation of extreme lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis: perioperative outcomes and complications. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:S322–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Moller DJ, Slimack NP, Acosta FL Jr, Koski TR, Fessler RG, Liu JC. Minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion and transpsoas approach-related morbidity. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;31:E4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tohmeh AG, Rodgers WB, Peterson MD. Dynamically evoked, discrete-threshold electromyography in the extreme lateral interbody fusion approach. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:31–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mayer HM. A new microsurgical technique for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22:691–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Silvestre C, Mac-Thiong JM, Hilmi R, Roussouly P. Complications and morbidities of mini-open anterior retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion: oblique lumbar interbody fusion in 179 patients. Asian Spine J. 2012;6:89–97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Abe K, Orita S, Mannoji C, Motegi H, Aramomi M, Ishikawa T, Kotani T, Akazawa T, Morinaga T, Fujiyoshi T, Hasue F, Yamagata M, et al. Perioperative complications in 155 patients who underwent oblique lateral interbody fusion surgery: perspectives and indications from a retrospective, multicenter survey. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017;42:55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Fujibayashi S, Kawakami N, Asazuma T, Ito M, Mizutani J, Nagashima H, Nakamura M, Sairyo K, Takemasa R, Iwasaki M. Complications associated with lateral interbody fusion: nationwide survey of 2998 cases during the first two years of its use in Japan. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017;42(19):1478–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Li JX, Phan K, Mobbs R. Oblique lumbar interbody fusion: technical aspects, operative outcomes, and complications. World Neurosurg. 2017;98:113–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kim JS, Choi WS, Sung JH. 314 minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion for L4–5: clinical outcomes and perioperative complications. Neurosurgery. 2016;63(Suppl 1):190–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Woods KR, Billys JB, Hynes RA. Technical description of oblique lateral interbody fusion at L1-L5 (OLIF25) and at L5-S1 (OLIF51) and evaluation of complication and fusion rates. Spine J. 2017;17:545–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Whang PG, Sasso RC, Patel VV, Ali RM, Fischgrund JS. Comparison of axial and anterior interbody fusions of the L5-S1 segment: a retrospective cohort analysis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2013;26:437–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Marotta N, Cosar M, Pimenta L, Khoo LT. A novel minimally invasive presacral approach and instrumentation technique for anterior L5-S1 intervertebral discectomy and fusion: technical description and case presentations. Neurosurg Focus. 2006;20:E9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lindley EM, McCullough MA, Burger EL, Brown CW, Patel VV. Complications of axial lumbar interbody fusion. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;15:273–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gundanna MI, Miller LE, Block JE. Complications with axial presacral lumbar interbody fusion: a 5-year postmarketing surveillance experience. SAS J. 2011;5:90–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schroeder GD, Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR. Axial interbody arthrodesis of the L5-S1 segment: a systematic review of the literature. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015;23:314–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • William P. Mosenthal
    • 1
  • Srikanth N. Divi
    • 1
  • Jason L. Dickherber
    • 1
  • Michael J. Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and RehabilitationUniversity of Chicago Medical CenterChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations