Advertisement

Insights in the Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Salt Stress Tolerance in Plants

  • Nisha Kumari
  • Kamla Malik
  • Babita Rani
  • Minakshi Jattan
  • Sushil
  • Ram Avtar
  • Sarita Devi
  • Sunder Singh Arya
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 56)

Abstract

Salt stress is one of the most brutal abiotic stresses that arrests crop survival and productivity. It affects various physiological, biochemical and metabolic processes in plants, depending on severity and duration of the stress. Plant adaptation or tolerance to salinity stress involves complex physiological traits, metabolic pathways, and molecular or gene networks. In response to high salinity stress, various genes get upregulated, the products of which are involved either directly or indirectly in plant protection. Some of the genes encoding osmolytes, ion channels, receptors, components of calcium signaling and some other regulatory signaling factors or enzymes are able to confer salinity tolerance, when transferred to sensitive plants. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to high salinity stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress-responsive genes. Plants that grow under different soil conditions are usually inhabited by microbes which are beneficial for the enhancement of their salinity tolerance mechanisms. Microbes, either independently or by interacting with plants, synthesize some organic osmolytes and other substances which offer an adaptive strategy to salinity stress. The partnership of plants with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can serve as a second possible and sustainable strategy to increase crop yields in saline soil. A comprehensive understanding on how plants respond to salinity stress at different levels and an integrated approach of combining molecular tools with physiological and biochemical techniques are inevitable for the development of salt-tolerant varieties of plants in salt affected areas.

Keywords

Salinity Stress Physiological Biochemical Microbe and tolerance 

References

  1. Abogadallah GM (2010) Antioxidative defense under salt stress. Plant Signal Behav 5:369–374PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afzal I, Munir F, Ayub CM (2009) Changes in antioxidant enzymes, germination capacity and vigour of tomato seeds in response of priming with polyamines. Seed Sci Technol 37:765–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarwal S, Shaheen R (2007) Stimulation of antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation by abiotic stresses in leaves of Momordica charantia. Braz J Plant Physiol 19:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad P, Sharma S (2008) Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants-a review. Plant, Soil Environ 54:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmad P, Jaleel CA, Sharma S (2010) Antioxidant defense system, lipid peroxidation, proline-metabolizing enzymes, and biochemical activities in two Morus alba genotypes subjected to NaCl stress. Russ J Plant Physiol 57:509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad P, Hashem A, Abd-Allah EF (2015) Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system. Front Plant Sci 6:868PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Alamgir ANM, Yousuf Ali M (1999) Effect of salinity on leaf pigments, sugar and protein concentrations and chloroplast ATPase activity of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Bangladesh J Bot 28:145–149Google Scholar
  8. Ali S, Charles TC, Glick BR (2014) Amelioration of high salinity stress damage by plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes that contain ACC deaminase. Plant Physiol Biochem 80:160–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aly-Salama KH, Al-Mutawa MM (2009) Glutathione-triggered mitigation in salt-induced alterations in plasmalemma of onion epidermal cells. Int J Agric Biol 11:639–642Google Scholar
  10. An BY, Luo Y, Li JR, Qiao WH, Zhang XS, Gao XQ (2008) Expression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene of alfalfa enhances salinity tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Acta Agron Sinica 34:557–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Asada K (1999) The water-water cycle in chloroplasts: scavenging of active oxygens and dissipation of excess photons. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:601–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ashraf M, Akram NA, Arteca RN, Foolad MR (2010) The physiological, biochemical and molecular roles of brassinosteroids and salicylic acid in plant processes and salt tolerance. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 29:162–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bajguz A (2014) Nitric oxide: role in plants under abiotic stress. In: Ahmad P, Wani MR (eds) Physiological mechanisms and adaptation strategies in plants under changing environment. Springer, New York, pp 137–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baltruschat H, Fodor J, Harrach BD (2008) Salt tolerance of barley induced by the root endophyte Piriformospora indica is associated with a strong increase in antioxidants. New Phytol 180:501–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Begara-Morales JC, Sanchez-Calvo B, Chaki M (2014) Dual regulation of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX) by tyrosine nitration and S-nitrosylation. J Exp Bot 65:527–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ben Ahmed C, Ben Rouina B, Sensoy S (2010) Exogenous proline effects on photosynthetic performance and antioxidant defense system of young olive tree. J Agric Food Chem 58:4216–4222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Besson-Bard A, Pugin A, Wendehenne D (2008) New insights into nitric oxide signaling in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:21–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cabot C, Sibole JV, Barcelo J, Poschenrieder C (2009) Abscisic acid decreases leaf Na+ exclusion in salt-treated Phaseolus vulgaris. J Plant Growth Regul 28:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crawford NM (2006) Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants. J Exp Bot 57:471–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Lourdes Oliveira Otoch M, Menezes Sobreira AC, Farias de Aragao ME (2001) Salt modulation of vacuolar H+-ATPase and H+-Pyrophosphatase activities in Vigna unguiculata. J Plant Physiol 158:545–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deepti B, Nidhi B, Deepamala M, Chandan SC, Alok K (2014) ACC deaminase containing Arthrobacter protophormiae induces NaCl stress tolerance through reduced ACC oxidase activity and ethylene production resulting in improved nodulation and mycorrhization in Pisum sativum. J Plant Physiol 171:884–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dietz KJ, Tavakoli N, Kluge C (2001) Significance of the V-type ATPase for the adaptation to stressful growth conditions and its regulation on the molecular and biochemical level. J Exp Bot 52:1969–1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dimkpa C, Weinand T, Asch F (2009) Plant-rhizobacteria interactions alleviate abiotic stress conditions. Plant Cell Environ 32:1682–1694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dkhil BB, Denden M (2012) Effect of salt stress on growth, anthocyanins, membrane permeability and chlorophyll fluorescence of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) seedlings. Am J Plant Physiol 7:174–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dodd IC, Perez-Alfocea F (2012) Microbial amelioration of crop salinity stress. J Exp Bot 63:3415–3428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. El-Mashad AAA, Mohamed HI (2012) Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis). Protoplasma 249:625–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. El-Shintinawy F, El-Shourbagy MN (2001) Alleviation of changes in protein metabolism in NaCl-stressed wheat seedlings by thiamine. Biol Plant 44:541–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. El-Tayeb MA (2005) Response of barley grains to the interactive effects of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regul 45:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evelin H, Giri B, Kapoor R (2013) Ultrastructural evidence for AMF mediated salt stress mitigation in Trigonella foenum-graecum. Mycorrhiza 23:71–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farag MA, Zhang H, Ryu CM (2013) Dynamic chemical communication between plants and bacteria through airborne signals: induced resistance by bacterial volatiles. J Chem Ecol 39:1007–1018PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Flowers TJ, Troke PF, Yeo AR (1977) The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 28:89–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Foyer CH, Lopez-Delgado H, Dat JF, Scott IM (1997) Hydrogen peroxide and glutathione associated mechanisms of acclimatory stress tolerance and signalling. Physiol Plant 100:241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Franken P (2012) The plant strengthening root endophyte Piriformospora indica: potential application and the biology behind. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96:1455–1464PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fukuda A, Tanaka Y (2006) Effects of ABA, auxin, and gibberellin on the expression of genes for vacuolar H+-inorganic pyrophosphatase, H+-ATPase subunit A, and Na+/H+ antiporter in barley. Plant Physiol Biochem 44:351–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gadallah MAA (1999) Effects of proline and glycine betaine on Vicia faba responses to salt stress. Biol Plant 42:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gao Z, Sagi M, Lips S (1998) Carbohydrate metabolism in leaves and assimilate partitioning in fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) as affected by salinity. Plant Sci 135:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gomes MADC, Suzuki MS, Cunha MD, Tullii CF (2011) Effect of salt stress on nutrient concentration, photosynthetic pigments, proline and foliar morphology of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. Acta Limnol Bras 23:164–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gopalakrishnan S, Sathya A, Vijayabharathi R (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobia: challenges and opportunities. Biotech 5:355–377Google Scholar
  40. Gray EJ, Smith DL (2005) Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: commonalities and distinctions in the plant-bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biol Biochem 37:395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gueta-Dahan Y, Yaniv Z, Zilinskas BA, Ben-Hayyim G (1997) Salt and oxidative stress: similar and specific responses and their relation to salt tolerance in Citrus. Planta 203:460–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guo Y, Qiu QS, Quintero FJ (2004) Transgenic evaluation of activated mutant alleles of SOS2 reveals a critical requirement for its kinase activity and C-terminal regulatory domain for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Online 16:435–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta B, Huang B (2014) Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants: physiological, biochemical, and molecular characterization. Int J Genomics 2014:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gupta K, Dey A, Gupta B (2013) Plant polyamines in abiotic stress responses. Acta Physiol Plant 35:2015–2036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gurmani AR, Bano A, Khan SU, Din J, Zhang JL (2011) Alleviation of salt stress by seed treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and chlormequat chloride (CCC) optimizes ion and organic matter accumulation and increases yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Aust J Crop Sci 5:1278–1285Google Scholar
  46. Hafsi C, Falleh H, Saada M (2017) Potassium deficiency alters growth, photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolites content, and related antioxidant capacity in Sulla carnosa grown under moderate salinity. Plant Physiol Biochem 118:609–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hammer EC, Nasr H, Pallon J (2011) Elemental composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at high salinity. Mycorrhiza 21:117–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Han QQ, Lu XP, Bai JP, Qiao Y, Pare PW, Wang SM (2014) Beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GB03) augments salt tolerance of white clover. Front Plant Sci 5:525PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Hanin M, Ebel C, Ngom M, Laplaze L, Masmoudi K (2016) New insights on plant salt tolerance mechanisms and their potential use for breeding. Front Plant Sci 7:1787PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hanson AD, Rathinasabapathi B, Rivoal J (1994) Osmoprotective compounds in the Plumbaginaceae: a natural experiment in metabolic engineering of stress tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:306–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hardoim PR, Overbeek LSV, Elsas JDV (2008) Properties of bacterial endophytes and their proposed role in plant growth. Trends Microbiol 16:463–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Fujita M (2014) Regulatory role of polyamines in growth, development and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In: Plant adaptation to environmental change: significance of amino acids and their derivatives. CAB ebooks. CABI, Wallingford, pp 157–193Google Scholar
  53. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. He C, Yan J, Shen G (2005) Expression of an arabidopsis vacuolar sodium/proton antiporter gene in cotton improves photosynthetic performance under salt conditions and increases fiber yield in the field. Plant Cell Physiol 46:1848–1854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hnilikova F, Martinkova J, Kraus K (2017) Effects of salt stress on water status, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of rocket. Plant Soil Environ 63:362–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoque MA, Banu MNA, Nakamura Y (2008) Proline and glycine betaine enhance antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems and reduce NaCl-induced damage in cultured tobacco cells. J Plant Physiol 165:813–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Horie T, Kaneko T, Sugimoto G (2011) Mechanisms of water transport mediated by pip aquaporins and their regulation via phosphorylation events under salinity stress in barley roots. Plant Cell Physiol 52:663–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hussain SS, Ali M, Ahmad M, Siddique KHM (2011) Polyamines: natural and engineered abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants. Biotechnol Adv 29:300–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ishitani M, Liu J, Halfter U, Kim CS, Shi W, Zhu JK (2000) SOS3 function in plant salt tolerance requires N-myristoylation and calcium binding. Plant Cell 12:1667–1677PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jeschke WD, Peuke AD, Pate JS, Hartung W (1997) Transport, synthesis and catabolism of abscisic acid (ABA) in intact plants of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under phosphate deficiency and moderate salinity. J Exp Bot 48:1737–1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kapoor N, Pande V (2015) Effect of salt stress on growth parameters, moisture content, relative water content and photosynthetic pigments of fenugreek variety rmt-1. J Plant Sci 10:210–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keisham M, Mukherjee S, Bhatla SC (2018) Mechanisms of sodium transport in plants-progresses and challenges. Int J Mol Sci 19:647PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kerepesi I, Galiba G (2000) Osmotic and salt stress-induced alteration in soluble carbohydrate content in wheat seedlings. Crop Sci 40:482–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Keskin BC, Sarikaya AT, Yuksel B, Memon AR (2010) Abscisic acid regulated gene expression in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Aust J Crop Sci 48:617–625Google Scholar
  65. Kim YC, Leveau J, McSpadden Gardener BB (2011) The multifactorial basis for plant health promotion by plant-associated bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:1548–1555PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kim SH, Ahn YO, Ahn MJ (2012) Down-regulation of β-carotene hydroxylase increases β-carotene and total carotenoids enhancing salt stress tolerance in transgenic cultured cells of sweet potato. Phytochemistry 74:69–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kim J, Liu Y, Zhang X, Zhao B, Childs K (2016) Analysis of salt-induced physiological and proline changes in 46 switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) lines indicates multiple response modes. Plant Physiol Biochem 105:203–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Knott JM, Romer P, Sumper M (2007) Putative spermine synthases from Thalassiosira pseudonana and Arabidopsis thaliana synthesize thermospermine rather than spermine. FEBS Lett 581:3081–3086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Krishna P (2003) Brassinosteroid-mediated stress responses. J Plant Growth Regul 22:289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kumari S, Vaishnav A, Jain S (2015) Bacterial-mediated induction of systemic tolerance to salinity with expression of stress alleviating enzymes in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill). J Plant Growth Regul 34:558–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lamattina L, Garcia-Mata C, Graziano M, Pagnussat G (2003) Nitric oxide: the versatility of an extensive signal molecule. Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:109–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lebeis SL (2014) The potential for give and take in planta microbiome relationships. Front Plant Sci 5:287PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liang W, Cui W, Ma X (2014) Function of wheat Ta-UnP gene in enhancing salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and rice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 450:794–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liang W, Ma X, Wan P, Liu L (2018) Plant salt-tolerance mechanism: a review. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 495:286–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu J, Ishitani M, Halfter U (2000) The Arabidopsis thaliana SOS2 gene encodes a protein kinase that is required for salt tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:3730–3734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu C, Mao B, Ou S (2014) OsbZIP71, a bZIP transcription factor, confers salinity and drought tolerance in rice. Plant Mol Biol 84:19–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 63:541–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ma L, Zhang H, Sun L (2012) NADPH oxidase AtrbohD and AtrbohF function in ROS-dependent regulation of Na+/K+ homeostasis in Arabidopsis under salt stress. J Exp Bot 63:305–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ma X, Liang W, Gu P, Huang Z (2016) Salt tolerance function of the novel C2H2-type zinc finger protein TaZNF in wheat. Plant Physiol Biochem 106:129–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Makela P, Karkkainen J, Somersalo S (2000) Effect of glycine betaine on chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll and protein content, and RuBPCO activities in tomato grown under drought or salinity. Biol Plant 43:471–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Martinez-Atienza J, Jiang X, Garciadeblas B (2007) Conservation of the salt overly sensitive pathway in rice. Plant Physiol 143:1001–1012PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004) Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 42:565–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mhamdi A, Queval G, Chaouch S (2010) Catalase function in plants: a focus on Arabidopsis mutants as stress-mimic models. J Exp Bot 61:4197–4220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mishra S, Jha AB, Dubey RS (2011) Arsenite treatment induces oxidative stress, upregulates antioxidant system, and causes phytochelatin synthesis in rice seedlings. Protoplasma 248:565–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7:405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mittova V, Guy M, Tal M, Volokita M (2004) Salinity up-regulates the antioxidative system in root mitochondria and peroxisomes of the wild salt-tolerant tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii. J Exp Bot 55:1105–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Montesinos E, Bonaterra A, Badosa E, Frances J, Alemany J, Llorente I, Moragrega C (2002) Plant-microbe interactions and the new biotechnological methods of plant disease control. Int Microbiol 5:169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Munir N, Aftab F (2011) Enhancement of salt tolerance in sugarcane by ascorbic acid pre-treatment. Afr J Biotechnol 10:18362–18370Google Scholar
  90. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nadeem SM, Zahir ZA, Naveed M, Ashraf M (2010) Microbial ACC-Deaminase: prospects and applications for inducing salt tolerance in plants. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 29:360–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nadeem SM, Ahmad M, Naveed M (2016) Relationship between in vitro characterization and comparative efficacy of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving cucumber salt tolerance. Arch Microbiol 198:379–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nakashima K, Tran LSP, Van Nguyen D (2007) Functional analysis of a NAC-type transcription factor OsNAC6 involved in abiotic and biotic stress-responsive gene expression in rice. Plant J 51:617–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nalousi AM, Ahmadiyan S, Hatamzadeh A, Ghasemnezhad M (2012) Protective role of exogenous nitric oxide against oxidative stress induced by salt stress in bell-pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Ame-Eura J Agri Env Sci 12:1085–1090Google Scholar
  95. Nazar R, Iqbal N, Syeed S, Khan NA (2011) Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under salt stress by enhancing nitrogen and sulfur assimilation and antioxidant metabolism differentially in two mungbean cultivars. J Plant Physiol 168:807–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Omami NE (2005) Response of amaranth to salinity stress. PhD Thesis. University of Pretoria etd, Pretoria, 235 pGoogle Scholar
  97. Omar MNA, Osman MEH, Kasim WA, Abd El-Daim IA (2009) Improvement of salt tolerance mechanisms of barley cultivated under salt stress using Azospirillum brasiliense. Tasks Veg Sci 44:133–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 60:324–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Parida A, Das AB, Das P (2002) NaCl stress causes changes in photosynthetic pigments, proteins, and other metabolic components in the leaves of a true mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora, in hydroponic cultures. J Plant Biol 45:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Parida A, Das A, Mittra B (2004) Effects of salt on growth, ion accumulation, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy of the mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora. Trees 18:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Parvaiz A, Satyawati S (2008) Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants – a review. Plant Soil Environ 54:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Popova LP, Stoinova ZG, Maslenkova LT (1995) Involvement of abscisic acid in hotosynthetic process in Hordeum vulgare L. during salinity stress. J Plant Growth Regul 14:211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Quintero FJ, Ohta M, Shi H (2002) Reconstitution in yeast of the Arabidopsis SOS signaling pathway for Na+ homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:9061–9066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rahneshan Z, Nasibi F, Moghadam AA (2018) Effects of salinity stress on some growth, physiological, biochemical parameters and nutrients in two pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) rootstocks. J Plant Int 13:73–82Google Scholar
  105. Roy S, Chakraborty U (2018) Role of sodium ion transporters and osmotic adjustments in stress alleviation of Cynodon dactylon under NaCl treatment: a parallel investigation with rice. Protoplasma 255:175–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ruiz-Lozano JM, Aroca R (2010) Modulation of aquaporin genes by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in relation to osmotic stress tolerance. In: Seckbach J, Grube M (eds) Symbioses and stress: joint ventures in biology, cellular origin, life in extreme habitats and astrobiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 359–374Google Scholar
  107. Sahoo RK, Ansari MW, Dangar TK (2014) Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of efficient nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter strains from rice fields for crop improvement. Protoplasma 251:511–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sairam RK, Tyagi A (2004) Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Curr Sci 86:407–421Google Scholar
  109. Sanders D (2000) Plant biology: the salty tale of Arabidopsis. Curr Biol 10:486–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sawada H, Shim IS, Usui K (2006) Induction of benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase and salicylic acid biosynthesis-modulation by salt stress in rice seedlings. Plant Sci 71:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Saxena SC, Kaur H, Verma P, Petla BP, Andugula VR, Majee M (2013) Osmoprotectants: potential for crop improvement under adverse conditions. In: Tuteja N, Gill SS (eds) Plant acclimation to environmental stress. Springer, New York, pp 197–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schmidt R, Mieulet D, Hubberten HM (2013) Salt-responsive ERF1 regulates reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling during the initial response to salt stress in rice. Plant Cell 25:2115–2131PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schroeder JI, Delhaize E, Frommer WB (2013) Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production. Nature 497:60–66PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shannon MC, Grieve CM, Francois LE (1994) Whole-plant response to salinity. In: Wilkinson RE (ed) Plant-environment interactions. Marcel-Decker, New York, pp 199–244Google Scholar
  115. Sharp RE, Hsiao TC, Silk WK (1990) Growth of the maize primary root at low water potentials: role of growth and deposition of hexose and potassium in osmotic adjustment. Plant Physiol 93:1337–1346PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shi H, Quintero FJ, Pardo JM, Zhu JK (2002) The putative plasma membrane Na+/H+antiporter SOS1 controls long-distance Na+ transport in plants. Plant Cell 14:465–477PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shu S, Guo SR, Yuan LY (2012) A review: polyamines and photosynthesis. In: Najafpour MM (ed) Advances in photosynthesis-fundamental aspects. In Tech, Rijeka, pp 439–464Google Scholar
  118. Singh R, Singh P, Sharma R (2014) Microorganism as a tool of bioremediation technology for cleaning environment: a review. Proc Int Acad Ecol Environ Sci 4:1–6Google Scholar
  119. Smith SE, Smith FA (2011) Roles of arbuscular mycorrhizas in plant nutrition and growth: new paradigms from cellular to ecosystem scales. Annu Rev Plant Biol 62:227–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sorty AM, Meena KK, Choudhary K (2016) Effect of plant growth promoting bacteria associated with halophytic weed (psoralea corylifolia l.) on germination and seedling growth of wheat under saline conditions. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 180:872–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Staiger D, Brown JWS (2013) Alternative splicing at the intersection of biological timing, development, and stress responses. Plant Cell 25:3640–3656PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sun SJ, Guo SQ, Yang X, Bao YM, Tang HJ, Sun H (2010) Functional analysis of a novel Cys2/His2 type zinc finger protein involved in salt tolerance in rice. J Exp Bot 61:2807–2818PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tanabe N, Yoshimura K, Kimura K, Yabuta Y, Shigeoka S (2007) Differential expression of alternatively spliced mRNAs of Arabidopsis SR protein homologs, atSR30 and atSR45a, in response to environmental stress. Plant Cell Physiol 48:1036–1049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Upadhyay SK, Singh DP (2015) Effect of salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on wheat plants and soil health in a saline environment. Plant Biol 17:288–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Upadhyay SK, Singh JS, Saxena AK, Singh DP (2012) Impact of PGPR inoculation on growth and antioxidant status of wheat under saline conditions. Plant Biol 14:605–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vaughan LV, MacAdam JW, Smith SE, Dudley LM (2002) Root growth and yield of differing alfalfa rooting populations under increasing salinity and zero leaching. Crop Sci 42:2064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Vicente O, Boscaiu M, Naranjo MA, Estrelles E, Belles JM, Soriano P (2004) Responses to salt stress in the halophyte Plantago crassifolia (Plantaginaceae). J Arid Environ 58:463–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wahome P, Jesch H, Grittner I (2001) Mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in two rose rootstocks: Rosa chinensis major and Rosa rubiginosa. Sci Hortic 87:207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wang Y, Nii N (2000) Changes in chlorophyll, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase, glycine betaine content, photosynthesis and transpiration in Amaranthus tricolor leaves during salt stress. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 75:623–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhang JL, Shi H (2013) Physiological and molecular mechanisms of plant salt tolerance. Photosynth Res 115:1–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhang L, Xi D, Li S, Gao Z, Zhao S, Shi J (2011) A cotton group CMAP kinase gene, GhMPK2, positively regulates salt and drought tolerance in tobacco. Plant Mol Biol 77:17–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhao L, Zhang F, Guo J (2004) Nitric oxide functions as a signal in salt resistance in the calluses from two ecotypes of reed. Plant Physiol 134:849–857PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zhao MG, Chen L, Zhang LL, Zhang WH (2009) Nitric reductase-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 151:755–767PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zhao CY, Si JH, Feng Q, Deo RC, Yu TF, Li PD (2017) Physiological response to salinity stress and tolerance mechanics of Populus euphratica. Environ Monit Assess 189:533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nisha Kumari
    • 1
  • Kamla Malik
    • 2
  • Babita Rani
    • 1
  • Minakshi Jattan
    • 3
  • Sushil
    • 4
  • Ram Avtar
    • 3
  • Sarita Devi
    • 5
  • Sunder Singh Arya
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  5. 5.Department of Botany and Plant PhysiologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  6. 6.Department of BotanyMaharshi Dayanand UniversityRohtakIndia

Personalised recommendations