• Christopher M. Nguyen
  • Rowan Chandler
  • Imran Ratanshi
  • Sarvesh LogsettyEmail author


Frostbite is a severe localized cold-induced injury caused by the freezing of soft tissue, secondary to exposure to temperatures below the freezing point of intact skin. It typically affects the peripheral upper and lower extremities but can also include areas of the face, such as the nose, cheeks, and ears. The sequelae of injury can be mild to severe, with treatment management ranging from watchful waiting to local wound care to major limb amputation. Intriguingly, it is a disease process that is unique in its vague initial presentation which can take a period of several months to determine the final demarcation of tissue damage. Given its nature of delayed presentation, a treatment guideline for early frostbite injuries remains elusive with no clear consensus of definitive intervention. As such, timely diagnosis, initial management, and patient education are vital in the prevention and provision of optimal treatment and tissue salvage in frostbite injuries [1].


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher M. Nguyen
    • 1
  • Rowan Chandler
    • 1
  • Imran Ratanshi
    • 1
  • Sarvesh Logsetty
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Manitoba Firefighters Burn Unit, Section of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Rady Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Section of General surgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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