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Plant Nutrient Management Through Inoculation of Zinc-Solubilizing Bacteria for Sustainable Agriculture

  • SatyavirSatyavir S. Sindhu
  • Ruchi Sharma
  • Swati Sindhu
  • Manisha Phour
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 55)

Abstract

The agricultural practices adopted to enhance agricultural productivity have adversely affected our environment and the natural resources. Moreover, food security for the ever-increasing human population also demands improvement in the quality of agri-produce. Due to the very low concentration of micronutrients in cereals, human beings are suffering the deficiency of these micronutrients. Approximately one-third of the total population in developing countries is at high risk of Zn deficiency because they depend on cereals for their daily caloric intake. Indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals and chemical fertilizers to increase crop yield has caused considerably negative impact on environmental sustainability and has resulted in deficiency of micronutrients in soil and plants. The micronutrient deficiency has further resulted in loss of plant enzyme functions, cell damage, oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and subsequently affected crop productivity. Increased interest in low-input agriculture in recent years has emphasized the use of biological inoculants (bacteria and/or fungi) to increase the mobilization of key nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and zinc) to crop plants. Zinc (Zn) is a crucial micronutrient for plants, microorganisms and humans. Therefore, effective strategies are required to overcome Zn deficiency in edible crops, to enhance the grain Zn content and to minimize the adverse effects of Zn deficiency on humans. Recently, inoculation of zinc-solubilizing bacteria has been recommended to overcome the zinc deficiency in plants and human beings. Zinc-solubilizing bacteria alone or with organic manures has been found to increase the bioavailability of native and applied zinc to the plants. Several bacteria including Acinetobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas have been reported to solubilize zinc. Thus, the production and management of biological fertilizers containing zinc-solubilizing bacteria can be an effective alternative to chemical fertilizers. The current knowledge about the characterization of zinc-solubilizing microorganisms (ZnSMs), complexity of the Zn-solubilization mechanisms and the interactions of biofertilizers under the field conditions leading to improved crop productivity is discussed in this chapter.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • SatyavirSatyavir S. Sindhu
    • 1
  • Ruchi Sharma
    • 1
  • Swati Sindhu
    • 1
  • Manisha Phour
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia

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