Future Directions

  • Stephen Harrel


Near term improvement of implants will likely be accomplished by modification of the surface of today’s titanium implants. It is unlikely that ceramic implants will be successful. Until the exact nature of “osseointegration” is determined, it is unlikely that an ideal implant surface will be manufactured. A “biologic” implant may be the eventual answer for preventing implant failures.


Surface modifications Ceramic implants Nature of osseointegration Ideal implant surface Biologic implant 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Harrel
    • 1
  1. 1.Texas A&M College of DentistryDallasUSA

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