Basal Ganglio-thalamo-cortico-spino-muscular Model of Parkinson’s Disease Bradykinesia

  • Vassilis CutsuridisEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Cognitive and Neural Systems book series (SSCNS, volume 13)


Bradykinesia is the cardinal symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) related to slowness of movement. The causes of PD bradykinesia are not known largely, because there are multiple brain areas and pathways involved from the neuronal degeneration site (dopamine (DA) neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA)) to the muscles. A neurocomputational model of basal ganglio-thalamo-cortico-spino-muscular dynamics with dopamine of PD bradykinesia is presented as a unified theoretical framework capable of producing a wealth of neuronal, electromyographic, and behavioral movement empirical findings reported in parkinsonian human and animal brain studies. The model attempts to uncover how information is processed in the affected brain areas, what role does DA play, and what are the biophysical mechanisms giving rise to the observed slowness of movement in PD bradykinesia.


Parkinson’s disease Slowness of movement Bradykinesia Akinesia Computer model Dopamine Basal ganglia Motor cortex Spinal cord Triphasic pattern of muscle activation 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer ScienceUniversity of LincolnLincolnUK

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