Advertisement

Reconstruction of Mandible and Maxilla After Resection for Non-melanoma Skin Cancer or Cutaneous Melanoma

  • Frédéric KolbEmail author
Chapter
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

Tumors arising from the skin rarely invade bone as diagnosis is often made at an early stage. These rare cases are mostly located at the head and neck region because it is the primary site for skin tumors and bony structures are in close relation with the skin [1–5]. This explains why the calvaria is the primary site for bone invasion by skin tumors [5–8] (Figs.  6.15 and  6.24). Maxilla and mandible are less likely to be involved and are seen in the context of aggressive [9, 10] (Figs.  6.22,  6.25,  6.27, and  6.28) or specific tumors [11–18] (Fig. 11.1), one of which being mucosal melanoma (MM). MM represents only 1.3% of all melanomas [19], but mostly arise from head and neck (55% of cases) and lead to bone resection in 70–80% of all midface cases [20]. Overall, T4 tumors, other than MM, represent less than 5% of all head and neck cases [21, 22]. Finally, bone extension is more frequent in immunodepressed patients [23] or specific diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, because of the tumor invasiveness. Patient’s health status, along with general disease prognosis, will have to be taken into account before planning the type of bone reconstruction. Being the result of a long and neglected disease or aggressive tumors, patient’s survival is engaged and renders life expectancy a prevalent parameter for reconstructive indications. For all these reasons no specific guidelines exist to manage mandible and maxilla interruption secondary to skin tumor resection [24].

References

  1. 1.
    Burch MB, Chung TK, Rosenthal EL, Schmalbach CE. Multimodality management of high-risk head and neck basal cell carcinoma requiring free-flap reconstruction. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;152:868–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Farasat S, Yu SS, Neel VA, et al. A new American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: creation and rationale for inclusion of tumor (T) characteristics. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64:1051–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rasulic LG, Jovanovic MD. Surgical treatment and dilemmas in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas with intracranial propagation. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2014;71:1045–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al Majed BM, Koonce SL, Eck DL, Murray P, Perdikis G. Direct long bone invasion by Basal cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Eplasty. 2013;13:e59.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Papadopoulos O, Konofaos P, Chrisostomidis C, et al. Nonmelanoma skin tumors involving the craniofacial region: our 22 years of experience. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18:1021–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abo Sedira M, Amin AA, Rifaat MA, El-Sebai HI, El-Badawy MA, Aboul Kassem HA. Locally advanced tumors of the scalp: the Egyptian National Cancer Institute experience. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2006;18:250–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gormley DE, Hirsch P. Aggressive basal cell carcinoma of the scalp. Arch Dermatol. 1978;114:782–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mathieu D, Fortin D. Intracranial invasion of a basal cell carcinoma of the scalp. Can J Neurol Sci. 2005;32:546–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pickering CR, Zhou JH, Lee JJ, et al. Mutational landscape of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:6582–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tsao SW, Burman JF, Pittam MR, Carter RL. Further observations on mechanisms of bone destruction by squamous carcinomas of the head and neck: the role of host stroma. Br J Cancer. 1983;48:697–704.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Angthong C, Kintarak J, Kanitnate S, Angthong W. Recurrent eccrine poroma with malignant transformation and bony involvement of the foot: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012;95(Suppl 1):S183–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Birkby CS, Argenyi ZB, Whitaker DC. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma with mandibular invasion and bone marrow replacement. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1989;15:308–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Droussi H, Ettalbi S, Ouahbi S, Soussou M, Boukind S. [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the scalp]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2011;138:418–21.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eftekhari F, Wallace S, Silva EG, Lenzi R. Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin: imaging and clinical features in 93 cases. Br J Radiol. 1996;69:226–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Millare GG, Guha-Thakurta N, Sturgis EM, El-Naggar AK, Debnam JM. Imaging findings of head and neck dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014;35:373–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sawada Y, Nomura K, Hashimoto I. Lentigo maligna melanoma with deep invasion along the mental nerve. J Maxillofac Surg. 1986;14:177–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Snow SN, Reizner GT. Eccrine porocarcinoma of the face. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27:306–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yuh WT, Engelken JD, Whitaker DC, Dolan KD. Bone marrow invasion of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1991;100:601–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chang AE, Karnell LH, Menck HR. The National Cancer Data Base report on cutaneous and noncutaneous melanoma: a summary of 84,836 cases from the past decade. The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer and the American Cancer Society. Cancer. 1998;83:1664–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Patel SG, Prasad ML, Escrig M, et al. Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2002;24:247–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Itro A, Santagata M, Carotenuto A, Nicoletti G, Tartaro GP. [Squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. Retrospective analysis of 42 cases]. Minerva Stomatol. 2003;52:123–6.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Breuninger H, Brantsch K, Eigentler T, Hafner HM. Comparison and evaluation of the current staging of cutaneous carcinomas. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2012;10:579–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Neubauer KE, Goldstein GD, Plumb SJ. Squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in organ transplant recipients: exploring mechanisms for recurrence and treatment guidelines. Dermatol Surg. 2010;36:185–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chan RC, Chan JY, Wei WI. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck: 32-year experience in a tertiary referral hospital. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:2749–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ezzoubi M, Benbrahim A, Fihri JF, Bahechar N, Boukind el H. [Reconstruction after tumour’s excision in lip’s cancer: report of 100 cases]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol. 2005;126:141–6.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bagatin M, Orihovac Z, Mohammed AM. Perineural invasion by carcinoma of the lower lip. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1995;23:155–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Di Gregorio C, Florena AM, Gebbia V, Moschella F. Mental nerve invasion by basal cell carcinoma of the chin: a case report. Anticancer Res. 1998;18:4723–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shinohara H, Iwasawa M, Kitazawa T, Kushima H. Functional lip reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap combined with a masseter muscle transfer after wide total excision of the chin. Ann Plast Surg. 2000;45:71–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cernea CR, Ferraz AR, de Castro IV, et al. Perineural invasion in aggressive skin carcinomas of the head and neck. Potentially dangerous but frequently overlooked. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2009;71:21–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT, Mendenhall NP, et al. Carcinoma of the skin of the head and neck with perineural invasion. Head Neck. 1989;11:301–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Solares CA, Lee K, Parmar P, O’Rourke P, Panizza B. Epidemiology of clinical perineural invasion in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;146:746–51.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Farley RL, Manolidis S, Ratner D. Aggressive basal cell carcinoma with invasion of the parotid gland, facial nerve, and temporal bone. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:307–15; discussion 315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McRackan TR, Fang TY, Pelosi S, et al. Factors associated with recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma involving the temporal bone. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2014;123:235–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gavriel H, McArthur G, Sizeland A, Henderson M. Review: mucosal melanoma of the head and neck. Melanoma Res. 2011;21:257–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hicks MJ, Flaitz CM. Oral mucosal melanoma: epidemiology and pathobiology. Oral Oncol. 2000;36:152–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lazarev S, Gupta V, Hu K, Harrison LB, Bakst R. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck: a systematic review of the literature. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90:1108–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Warszawik-Hendzel O, Slowinska M, Olszewska M, Rudnicka L. Melanoma of the oral cavity: pathogenesis, dermoscopy, clinical features, staging and management. Journal of dermatological case reports. 2014;8:60–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Amdur RJ, Parsons JT, Mendenhall WM, Million RR, Stringer SP, Cassisi NJ. Postoperative irradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: an analysis of treatment results and complications. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1989;16:25–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lee WR, Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT, Million RR. Radical radiotherapy for T4 carcinoma of the skin of the head and neck: a multivariate analysis. Head Neck. 1993;15:320–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim MR, Donoff RB. Critical analysis of mandibular reconstruction using AO reconstruction plates. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;50:1152–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cordeiro PG, Hidalgo DA. Conceptual considerations in mandibular reconstruction. Clin Plast Surg. 1995;22:61–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ferreira JJ, Zagalo CM, Oliveira ML, Correia AM, Reis AR. Mandible reconstruction: history, state of the art and persistent problems. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2015;39(3):182–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jegoux F, Bedfert C, Alno N, Le Clech G, Daculsi G. [Mandibular reconstruction for the treatment of oral carcinomas: state of the art and perspectives]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 2009;126:138–48.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Arden RL, Rachel JD, Marks SC, Dang K. Volume-length impact of lateral jaw resections on complication rates. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125:68–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Disa JJ, Cordeiro PG. Mandible reconstruction with microvascular surgery. Semin Surg Oncol. 2000;19:226–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Baumann DP, Yu P, Hanasono MM, Skoracki RJ. Free flap reconstruction of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible: a 10-year review and defect classification. Head Neck. 2011;33:800–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Boyd JB, Gullane PJ, Rotstein LE, Brown DH, Irish JC. Classification of mandibular defects. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993;92:1266–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brown JS, Barry C, Ho M, Shaw R. A new classification for mandibular defects after oncological resection. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17:e23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Coleman JJ 3rd, Wooden WA. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer. Am J Surg. 1990;160:390–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    David DJ, Tan E, Katsaros J, Sheen R. Mandibular reconstruction with vascularized iliac crest: a 10-year experience. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1988;82:792–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Iizuka T, Hafliger J, Seto I, Rahal A, Mericske-Stern R, Smolka K. Oral rehabilitation after mandibular reconstruction using an osteocutaneous fibula free flap with endosseous implants. Factors affecting the functional outcome in patients with oral cancer. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2005;16:69–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jewer DD, Boyd JB, Manktelow RT, et al. Orofacial and mandibular reconstruction with the iliac crest free flap: a review of 60 cases and a new method of classification. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989;84:391–403; discussion 404–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pavlov BL. [Classification of mandibular defects]. Stomatologiia. 1974;53:43–6.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schultz BD, Sosin M, Nam A, et al. Classification of mandible defects and algorithm for microvascular reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015;135:743e–54e.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tarsitano A, Del Corso G, Ciocca L, Scotti R, Marchetti C. Mandibular reconstructions using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing: a systematic review of a defect-based reconstructive algorithm. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2015;43:1785–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Urken ML, Weinberg H, Vickery C, Buchbinder D, Lawson W, Biller HF. Oromandibular reconstruction using microvascular composite free flaps. Report of 71 cases and a new classification scheme for bony, soft-tissue, and neurologic defects. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117:733–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bak M, Jacobson AS, Buchbinder D, Urken ML. Contemporary reconstruction of the mandible. Oral Oncol. 2010;46:71–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Adaki R, Shigli K, Hormuzdi DM, Gali S. A novel speech prosthesis for mandibular guidance therapy in hemimandibulectomy patient: a clinical report. Contemp Clin Dent. 2016;7:118–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bhattacharya SR, Majumdar D, Singh DK, Islam MD, Ray PK, Saha N. Maxillary palatal ramp prosthesis: a prosthodontic solution to manage mandibular deviation following surgery. Contemp Clin Dent. 2015;6:S111–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nakajima J. [Application of the palatal ramp in a reconstructed mandibulectomy patient]. Nihon Hotetsu Shika Gakkai Zasshi. 2008;52:388–91.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shnayder Y, Lin D, Desai SC, Nussenbaum B, Sand JP, Wax MK. Reconstruction of the lateral mandibular defect: a review and treatment algorithm. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2015;17:367–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Becker ST, Menzebach M, Kuchler T, Hertrampf K, Wenz HJ, Wiltfang J. Quality of life in oral cancer patients—effects of mandible resection and socio-cultural aspects. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:24–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shockley WW, Weissler MC, Pillsbury HC. Immediate mandibular replacement using reconstruction plates. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117:745–9; discussion 750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zwetyenga N, Pinsolle J, Siberchicot F, Majoufre-Lefebvre C. Reconstruction of lateral mandibular defects with dynamic bridging plates. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;40:307–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Avraham T, Franco P, Brecht LE, et al. Functional outcomes of virtually planned free fibula flap reconstruction of the mandible. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;134:628e–34e.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wan Q, Zwahlen RA, Cheng G, Li Z, Li Z. Influence of mandibular reconstruction on patients’ health-related quality of life. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:1782–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Poli T, Ferrari S, Bianchi B, Sesenna E. [Primary reconstruction of lateral oro-mandibular defects using titanium plates (Thorp) and revascularized non-osseous flaps: a personal experience]. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2001;21:290–9.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kudo K, Shoji M, Yokota M, Fujioka Y. Evaluation of mandibular reconstruction techniques following resection of malignant tumors in the oral region. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;50:14–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lopez R, Dekeister C, Sleiman Z, Paoli JR. Mandibular reconstruction using the titanium functionally dynamic bridging plate system: a retrospective study of 34 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:421–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stoll P, Wachter R. AO reconstruction plate systems for the repair of mandibular defects 3-DBRP versus Thorp-system. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1992;20:40–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Arias-Gallo J, Maremonti P, Gonzalez-Otero T, et al. Long term results of reconstruction plates in lateral mandibular defects. Revision of nine cases. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2004;31:57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gellrich NC, Suarez-Cunqueiro MM, Otero-Cepeda XL, Schon R, Schmelzeisen R, Gutwald R. Comparative study of locking plates in mandibular reconstruction after ablative tumor surgery: THORP versus UniLOCK system. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:186–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hellem S, Olofsson J. Titanium-coated hollow screw and reconstruction plate system (THORP) in mandibular reconstruction. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1988;16:173–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Vuillemin T, Raveh J, Sutter F. Mandibular reconstruction with the THORP condylar prosthesis after hemimandibulectomy. J Cranio-maxillo-fac Surg. 1989;17:78–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Koch WM, Yoo GH, Goodstein ML, Eisele DW, Richtsmeier WJ, Price JC. Advantages of mandibular reconstruction with the titanium hollow screw osseointegrating reconstruction plate (THORP). Laryngoscope. 1994;104:545–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Soderholm AL, Hallikainen D, Lindqvist C. Long-term stability of two different mandibular bridging systems. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119:1031–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cordeiro PG, Hidalgo DA. Soft tissue coverage of mandibular reconstruction plates. Head Neck. 1994;16:112–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Head C, Alam D, Sercarz JA, et al. Microvascular flap reconstruction of the mandible: a comparison of bone grafts and bridging plates for restoration of mandibular continuity. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:48–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ryu JK, Stern RL, Robinson MG, et al. Mandibular reconstruction using a titanium plate: the impact of radiation therapy on plate preservation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1995;32:627–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sharan R, Iyer S, Chatni SS, et al. Increased plate and osteosynthesis related complications associated with postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy in oral cancer. Head Neck. 2008;30:1422–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lindqvist C, Soderholm AL, Laine P, Paatsama J. Rigid reconstruction plates for immediate reconstruction following mandibular resection for malignant tumors. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;50:1158–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nicholson RE, Schuller DE, Forrest LA, Mountain RE, Ali T, Young D. Factors involved in long- and short-term mandibular plate exposure. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;123:217–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Maurer P, Eckert AW, Kriwalsky MS, Schubert J. Scope and limitations of methods of mandibular reconstruction: a long-term follow-up. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:100–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Poli T, Ferrari S, Bianchi B, Sesenna E. Primary oromandibular reconstruction using free flaps and thorp plates in cancer patients: a 5-year experience. Head Neck. 2003;25:15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ueyama Y, Naitoh R, Yamagata A, Matsumura T. Analysis of reconstruction of mandibular defects using single stainless steel A-O reconstruction plates. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996;54:858–62; discussion 862–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Taylor GI, Corlett RJ, Ashton MW. The evolution of free vascularized bone transfer: a 40-year experience. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;137:1292–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Torina PJ, Matros E, Athanasian EA, Cordeiro PG. Immediate bone grafting and plating of the radial osteocutaneous free flap donor site. Ann Plast Surg. 2014;73:315–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Netscher D, Alford EL, Wigoda P, Cohen V. Free composite myo-osseous flap with serratus anterior and rib: indications in head and neck reconstruction. Head Neck. 1998;20:106–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hidalgo DA. Fibula free flap: a new method of mandible reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989;84:71–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hidalgo DA. Aesthetic improvements in free-flap mandible reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1991;88:574–85; discussion 586–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Holzle F, Kesting MR, Holzle G, et al. Clinical outcome and patient satisfaction after mandibular reconstruction with free fibula flaps. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;36:802–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wei FC, Demirkan F, Chen HC, Chen IH. Double free flaps in reconstruction of extensive composite mandibular defects in head and neck cancer. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;103:39–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Blackwell KE, Buchbinder D, Biller HF, Urken ML. Reconstruction of massive defects in the head and neck: the role of simultaneous distant and regional flaps. Head Neck. 1997;19:620–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Leclere FM, Bosc R. Temam Set al. Reconstruction of large mandibulofacial defects with the composed double skin paddle fibula free flap: a review of 32 procedures. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:1336–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cordeiro PG, Disa JJ, Hidalgo DA, Hu QY. Reconstruction of the mandible with osseous free flaps: a 10-year experience with 150 consecutive patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;104:1314–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Taylor GI, Townsend P, Corlett R. Superiority of the deep circumflex iliac vessels as the supply for free groin flaps. Clinical work. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1979;64:745–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Taylor GI. Reconstruction of the mandible with free composite iliac bone grafts. Ann Plast Surg. 1982;9:361–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Taylor GI. The current status of free vascularized bone grafts. Clin Plast Surg. 1983;10:185–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Moscoso JF, Urken ML. The iliac crest composite flap for oromandibular reconstruction. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1994;27:1097–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Urken ML, Vickery C, Weinberg H, Buchbinder D, Biller HF. The internal oblique-iliac crest osseomyocutaneous microvascular free flap in head and neck reconstruction. J Reconstr Microsurg. 1989;5:203–14; discussion 215–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moscoso JF, Keller J, Genden E, et al. Vascularized bone flaps in oromandibular reconstruction. A comparative anatomic study of bone stock from various donor sites to assess suitability for enosseous dental implants. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1994;120:36–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lonie S, Herle P, Paddle A, Pradhan N, Birch T, Shayan R. Mandibular reconstruction: meta-analysis of iliac- versus fibula-free flaps. ANZ J Surg. 2016;86(5):337–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Valentini V, Gennaro P, Aboh IV, Longo G, Mitro V, Ialongo C. Iliac crest flap: donor site morbidity. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:1052–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hoffmann J, Ehrenfeld M, Hwang S, Schwenzer N. Complications after microsurgical tissue transfer in the head and neck region. Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 1998;26:255–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Moon SY. Monocortical deep circumflex iliac artery flap in jaw reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg. 2015;26:1294–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lyons AJ, James R, Collyer J. Free vascularised iliac crest graft: an audit of 26 consecutive cases. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;43:210–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shpitzer T, Neligan PC, Gullane PJ, et al. The free iliac crest and fibula flaps in vascularized oromandibular reconstruction: comparison and long-term evaluation. Head Neck. 1999;21:639–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shenaq SM, Klebuc MJ. Refinements in the iliac crest microsurgical free flap for oromandibular reconstruction. Microsurgery. 1994;15:825–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Chassagne JF, Sibille P, Dinh Doan G, et al. [Evaluation of the use of free flaps of the anterior iliac crest. Review of 49 cases]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 1990;35:283–9.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Miyamoto S, Sakuraba M, Nagamatsu S, Hayashi R. Current role of the iliac crest flap in mandibular reconstruction. Microsurgery. 2011;31:616–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Elliott LF, Hartrampf CR Jr. The Rubens flap. The deep circumflex iliac artery flap. Clin Plast Surg. 1998;25:283–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Urken ML, Vickery C, Weinberg H, Buchbinder D, Lawson W, Biller HF. The internal oblique-iliac crest osseomyocutaneous free flap in oromandibular reconstruction. Report of 20 cases. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1989;115:339–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Shenaq SM, Klebuc MJ. The iliac crest microsurgical free flap in mandibular reconstruction. Clin Plast Surg. 1994;21:37–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Swartz WM, Banis JC, Newton ED, Ramasastry SS, Jones NF, Acland R. The osteocutaneous scapular flap for mandibular and maxillary reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986;77:530–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gibber MJ, Clain JB, Jacobson AS, et al. Subscapular system of flaps: an 8-year experience with 105 patients. Head Neck. 2015;37(8):1200–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Baker SR, Sullivan MJ. Osteocutaneous free scapular flap for one-stage mandibular reconstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988;114:267–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Thomassin JM, Inedjian JM, Zanaret M, et al.[The scapular osteocutaneous flap. Technic, indications in cervicofacial surgery]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 1990;107:107–14.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jacobson L, Dedhia R, Kokot N, Chalian A. Scapular osteocutaneous free flap for total lower lip and mandible reconstruction. Microsurgery. 2016;36(6):480–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hanasono MM, Skoracki RJ. The scapular tip osseous free flap as an alternative for anterior mandibular reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;125:164e–6e.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Louis MY, Rame JP, De Raucourt D, Mayaleh HA. Revascularized free scapular flaps in mandibular reconstruction. Report of 93 cases (April 1997–October 2009). Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol. 2010;131:263–8.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Dowthwaite SA, Theurer J, Belzile M, et al. Comparison of fibular and scapular osseous free flaps for oromandibular reconstruction: a patient-centered approach to flap selection. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;139:285–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mayot D, Perrin C, Lindas P, Dron K. [Reconstruction of the mandibular symphysis using a revascularized free flap of the scapula. Surgical technic]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 1993;94:15–20.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Aoji K, Nishioka S, Nishikawa K, Koike S. [Mandibular reconstruction using a vascularized osteocutaneous scapular flap]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho. 1994;97:41–50.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Piazza C, Paderno A, Taglietti V, Nicolai P. Evolution of complex palatomaxillary reconstructions: the scapular angle osteomuscular free flap. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;21:95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Strackee SD, Kroon FH, Jaspers JE, Bos KE. Modeling a fibula transplant in mandibular reconstructions: evaluation of the effects of a minimal number of osteotomies on the contour of the jaw. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;108:1915–21; discussion 1922–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hidalgo DA. Discussion: long-term operative outcomes of preoperative computed tomography-guided virtual surgical planning for osteocutaneous free flap mandible reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;137:624–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wolford LM. Temporomandibular joint devices: treatment factors and outcomes. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1997;83:143–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Patel A, Maisel R. Condylar prostheses in head and neck cancer reconstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001;127:842–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wolford LM, Dingwerth DJ, Talwar RM, Pitta MC. Comparison of 2 temporomandibular joint total joint prosthesis systems. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61:685–90; discussion 690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hidalgo DA. Condyle transplantation in free flap mandible reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1994;93:770–81; discussion 782–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chao JW, Rohde CH, Chang MM, Kutler DI, Friedman J, Spector JA. Oral rehabilitation outcomes after free fibula reconstruction of the mandible without condylar restoration. J Craniofac Surg. 2014;25:415–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Moore EJ, Hamilton SS. Mandibular condyle reconstruction with fibula free-tissue transfer. Ear Nose Throat J. 2012;91:E18–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wax MK, Winslow CP, Hansen J, et al. A retrospective analysis of temporomandibular joint reconstruction with free fibula microvascular flap. Laryngoscope. 2000;110:977–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lippold C, Kruse-Losler B, Danesh G, Joos U, Meyer U. Treatment of hemimandibular hyperplasia: the biological basis of condylectomy. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:353–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Strackee SD, Kroon FH, Bos KE. Fixation methods in mandibular reconstruction using fibula grafts: a comparative study into the relative strength of three different types of osteosynthesis. Head Neck. 2001;23:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Klotch DW, Gal TJ, Gal RL. Assessment of plate use for mandibular reconstruction: has changing technology made a difference? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;121:388–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Farwell DG, Kezirian EJ, Heydt JL, Yueh B, Futran ND. Efficacy of small reconstruction plates in vascularized bone graft mandibular reconstruction. Head Neck. 2006;28:573–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Chow JM, Hill JH. Primary mandibular reconstruction using the AO reconstruction plate. Laryngoscope. 1986;96:768–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Futran ND, Urken ML, Buchbinder D, Moscoso JF, Biller HF. Rigid fixation of vascularized bone grafts in mandibular reconstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;121:70–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Shaw RJ, Kanatas AN, Lowe D, Brown JS, Rogers SN, Vaughan ED. Comparison of miniplates and reconstruction plates in mandibular reconstruction. Head Neck. 2004;26:456–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Knott PD, Suh JD, Nabili V, et al. Evaluation of hardware-related complications in vascularized bone grafts with locking mandibular reconstruction plate fixation. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133:1302–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Dholam KP, Bachher GK, Yadav PS, Quazi GA, Pusalkar HA. Assessment of quality of life after implant-retained prosthetically reconstructed maxillae and mandibles postcancer treatments. Implant Dent. 2011;20:85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Hakim SG, Kimmerle H, Trenkle T, Sieg P, Jacobsen HC. Masticatory rehabilitation following upper and lower jaw reconstruction using vascularised free fibula flap and enossal implants-19 years of experience with a comprehensive concept. Clin Oral Investig. 2015;19:525–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Bodard AG, Gourmet R, Lucas R, Bonnet E, Breton P. [Dental implants in irradiated areas: a series of 33 patients]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2006;107:137–142; discussion 143–4.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Esser E, Wagner W. Dental implants following radical oral cancer surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1997;12:552–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Linsen SS, Martini M, Stark H. Long-term results of endosteal implants following radical oral cancer surgery with and without adjuvant radiation therapy. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012;14:250–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Mancha De La Plata M, Gias LN, Diez PM, et al. Osseointegrated implant rehabilitation of irradiated oral cancer patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:1052–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Pompa G, Saccucci M, Di Carlo G, et al. Survival of dental implants in patients with oral cancer treated by surgery and radiotherapy: a retrospective study. BMC Oral Health. 2015;15:5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Salinas TJ, Desa VP, Katsnelson A, Miloro M. Clinical evaluation of implants in radiated fibula flaps. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:524–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Shaw RJ, Sutton AF, Cawood JI, et al. Oral rehabilitation after treatment for head and neck malignancy. Head Neck. 2005;27:459–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Taylor TD, Worthington P. Osseointegrated implant rehabilitation of the previously irradiated mandible: results of a limited trial at 3 to 7 years. J Prosthet Dent. 1993;69:60–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Weischer T, Mohr C. Ten-year experience in oral implant rehabilitation of cancer patients: treatment concept and proposed criteria for success. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1999;14:521–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Werkmeister R, Szulczewski D, Walteros-Benz P, Joos U. Rehabilitation with dental implants of oral cancer patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1999;27:38–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Yerit KC, Posch M, Seemann M, et al. Implant survival in mandibles of irradiated oral cancer patients. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2006;17:337–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Schepers RH, Slagter AP, Kaanders JH, van den Hoogen FJ, Merkx MA. Effect of postoperative radiotherapy on the functional result of implants placed during ablative surgery for oral cancer. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:803–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Cuesta-Gil M, Ochandiano Caicoya S, Riba-Garcia F, Duarte Ruiz B, Navarro Cuellar C, Navarro Vila C. Oral rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants in oncologic patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:2485–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Korfage A, Schoen PJ, Raghoebar GM, Roodenburg JL, Vissink A, Reintsema H. Benefits of dental implants installed during ablative tumour surgery in oral cancer patients: a prospective 5-year clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010;21:971–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Schoen PJ, Raghoebar GM, Bouma J, et al. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of oral function in head-neck cancer patients with dental implants placed simultaneously during ablative tumour surgery: an assessment of treatment outcomes and quality of life. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:8–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Bauermeister AJ, Zuriarrain A, Newman MI. Three-dimensional printing in plastic and reconstructive surgery: a systematic review. Ann Plast Surg. 2016, 77(5):569–76.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Malik HH, Darwood AR, Shaunak S, et al. Three-dimensional printing in surgery: a review of current surgical applications. J Surg Res. 2015;199:512–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Martelli N, Serrano C, Van den Brink H, et al. Advantages and disadvantages of 3-dimensional printing in surgery: a systematic review. Surgery. 2016;159(6):1485–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Foley BD, Thayer WP, Honeybrook A, McKenna S, Press S. Mandibular reconstruction using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing: an analysis of surgical results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71:e111–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Gerstle TL, Ibrahim AM, Kim PS, Lee BT, Lin SJ. A plastic surgery application in evolution: three-dimensional printing. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;133:446–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Strackee SD, Kroon FH, Spierings PT, Jaspers JE. Development of a modeling and osteotomy jig system for reconstruction of the mandible with a free vascularized fibula flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114:1851–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Eppley BL, Hollier L, Stal S. Hydroxyapatite cranioplasty: 2. Clinical experience with a new quick-setting material. J Craniofac Surg. 2003;14:209–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hardy H, Tollard E, Derrey S et al. [Clinical and ossification outcome of custom-made hydroxyapatite prothese for large skull defect]. Neurochirurgie. 2012;58:25–9.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Piitulainen JM, Kauko T, Aitasalo KM, Vuorinen V, Vallittu PK, Posti JP. Outcomes of cranioplasty with synthetic materials and autologous bone grafts. World Neurosurg. 2015;83:708–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Staffa G, Nataloni A, Compagnone C, Servadei F. Custom made cranioplasty prostheses in porous hydroxy-apatite using 3D design techniques: 7 years experience in 25 patients. Acta Neurochir. 2007;149:161–70; discussion 170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Stefini R, Zanotti B, Nataloni A, et al. The efficacy of custom-made porous hydroxyapatite prostheses for cranioplasty: evaluation of postmarketing data on 2697 patients. J Appl Biomater Funct Mater. 2015;13:e136–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Gil RS, Roig AM, Obispo CA, Morla A, Pages CM, Perez JL. Surgical planning and microvascular reconstruction of the mandible with a fibular flap using computer-aided design, rapid prototype modelling, and precontoured titanium reconstruction plates: a prospective study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;53:49–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Tarsitano A, Mazzoni S, Cipriani R, Scotti R, Marchetti C, Ciocca L. The CAD-CAM technique for mandibular reconstruction: an 18 patients oncological case-series. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2014;42:1460–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Metzler P, Geiger EJ, Alcon A, Ma X, Steinbacher DM. Three-dimensional virtual surgery accuracy for free fibula mandibular reconstruction: planned versus actual results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:2601–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Dias FL, Sa GM, Kligerman J, Nogueira J, Galvao ML, Lima RA. Prognostic factors and outcome in craniofacial surgery for malignant cutaneous tumors involving the anterior skull base. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;123:738–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Stander S, Stander H, Kutzner H, Luger TA, Metze D. [Squamous epithelial carcinomas of the face with neurotropic growth]. Hautarzt. 2003;54:1087–94.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Villalon-Lopez JS, Valle-Mejia CA, Patino-Lara A, Moreno-Perez BA, Munoz-Lopez JA, Alcantar-Andrade A. Suprastructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: case report and review. J Cancer Res Ther. 2006;2:140–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Sebastian Villalon-Lopez J, Arturo Valle-Mejia C, Patino-Lara A, Moreno-Perez Bertha A, Alejo Munoz-Lopez J, Alcantar-Andrade A. Suprastructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: case report and review. J Cancer Res Ther. 2005;1:132–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Soysal HG, Markoc F. Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelids and periorbital region. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:325–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Tyers AG. Orbital exenteration for invasive skin tumours. Eye (London, England). 2006;20:1165–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Medina JE, Ferlito A, Pellitteri PK, et al. Current management of mucosal melanoma of the head and neck. J Surg Oncol. 2003;83:116–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Padhya TA, Cornelius RS, Athavale SM, Gluckman JL. Perineural extension to the skull base from early cutaneous malignancies of the midface. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137:742–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hanasono MM, Silva AK, Yu P, Skoracki RJ. A comprehensive algorithm for oncologic maxillary reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;131:47–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Cordeiro PG, Chen CM. A 15-year review of midface reconstruction after total and subtotal maxillectomy: Part I. Algorithm and outcomes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129:124–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    McCarthy CM, Cordeiro PG. Microvascular reconstruction of oncologic defects of the midface. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126:1947–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Okay DJ, Genden E, Buchbinder D, Urken M. Prosthodontic guidelines for surgical reconstruction of the maxilla: a classification system of defects. J Prosthet Dent. 2001;86:352–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Cordeiro PG, Santamaria E. A classification system and algorithm for reconstruction of maxillectomy and midfacial defects. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105:2331–46; discussion 2347–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Brown JS, Rogers SN, McNally DN, Boyle M. A modified classification for the maxillectomy defect. Head Neck. 2000;22:17–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Spiro RH, Strong EW, Shah JP. Maxillectomy and its classification. Head Neck. 1997;19:309–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Sarukawa S, Sakuraba M, Asano T, et al. Immediate maxillary reconstruction after malignant tumor extirpation. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2007;33:518–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Larson DL. A classification system and algorithm for reconstruction of maxillectomy and midfacial defects. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105:2347–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Davison SP, Sherris DA, Meland NB. An algorithm for maxillectomy defect reconstruction. Laryngoscope. 1998;108:215–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Wells MD, Luce EA. Reconstruction of midfacial defects after surgical resection of malignancies. Clin Plast Surg. 1995;22:79–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Brown JS, Shaw RJ. Reconstruction of the maxilla and midface: introducing a new classification. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:1001–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Bidra AS, Jacob RF, Taylor TD. Classification of maxillectomy defects: a systematic review and criteria necessary for a universal description. J Prosthet Dent. 2012;107:261–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Yamamoto Y, Kawashima K, Sugihara T, Nohira K, Furuta Y, Fukuda S. Surgical management of maxillectomy defects based on the concept of buttress reconstruction. Head Neck. 2004;26:247–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Yamamoto Y. Mid-facial reconstruction after maxillectomy. Int J Clin Oncol. 2005;10:218–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Thompson S, Menick FJ. Aesthetic facial reconstruction: blending human perception and the facial subunit theory. Plast Surg Nurs Dermatol Nurs. 1994;14:211–216, 224.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Gullane PJ, Lipa JE, Novak CB, Neligan PC. Reconstruction of skull base defects. Clin Plast Surg. 2005;32:391–9. viiPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Chang DW, Langstein HN, Gupta A, et al. Reconstructive management of cranial base defects after tumor ablation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;107:1346–55; discussion 1356–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Patel MR, Stadler ME, Snyderman CH, et al. How to choose? Endoscopic skull base reconstructive options and limitations. Skull Base. 2010;20:397–404.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Neligan PC, Boyd JB. Reconstruction of the cranial base defect. Clin Plast Surg. 1995;22:71–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Gillies HD. Some general principles of facial reconstruction with individual examples. Atti Conf Interall Inval Guerra. 1919;3:551.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    O’Connell DA, Futran ND. Reconstruction of the midface and maxilla. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;18:304–10.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    McConnel FM, Pauloski BR, Logemann JA, et al. Functional results of primary closure vs. flaps in oropharyngeal reconstruction: a prospective study of speech and swallowing. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;124:625–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Menick FJ. Facial reconstruction with local and distant tissue: the interface of aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998;102:1424–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Lustgarten L, Abadi JR, Sancevic R, Meneses P, Perez Morrel A, Lugo J. Use of a protein-based tissue adhesive as an aid for the surgical reconstruction of advanced and recurrent skin cancer tumors to the head and neck region: a technical report. Surg Neurol. 2007;68:53–9; discussion 59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hadad G, Bassagasteguy L, Carrau RL, et al. A novel reconstructive technique after endoscopic expanded endonasal approaches: vascular pedicle nasoseptal flap. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1882–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Kassam AB, Thomas A, Carrau RL, et al. Endoscopic reconstruction of the cranial base using a pedicled nasoseptal flap. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:ONS44-52; discussion ONS52-43Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Patel MR, Taylor RJ, Hackman TG, et al. Beyond the nasoseptal flap: outcomes and pearls with secondary flaps in endoscopic endonasal skull base reconstruction. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:846–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Zhang X, Wang EW, Wei H, et al. Anatomy of the posterior septal artery with surgical implications on the vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap. Head Neck. 2015;37(10):1470–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Wheless SA, McKinney KA, Carrau RL, et al. Nasoseptal flap closure of traumatic cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Skull Base. 2011;21:93–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Horiguchi K, Murai H, Hasegawa Y, Hanazawa T, Yamakami I, Saeki N. Endoscopic endonasal skull base reconstruction using a nasal septal flap: surgical results and comparison with previous reconstructions. Neurosurg Rev. 2010;33:235–41; discussion 241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Learned KO, Adappa ND, Loevner LA, Palmer JN, Newman JG, Lee JY. MR imaging evaluation of endoscopic cranial base reconstruction with pedicled nasoseptal flap following endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82:544–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Mladina R, Castelnuovo P, Locatelli D, Duric Vukovic K, Skitarelic N. Training cerebrospinal fluid leak repair with nasoseptal flap on the lamb’s head. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2013;75:32–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Nyquist GG, Anand VK, Singh A, Schwartz TH. Janus flap: bilateral nasoseptal flaps for anterior skull base reconstruction. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;142:327–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Shah RN, Surowitz JB, Patel MR, et al. Endoscopic pedicled nasoseptal flap reconstruction for pediatric skull base defects. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1067–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Zhang WT, Yin SK. [An endoscopic approach to reconstruction of skull base defects using a vascular pedicled nasoseptal mucoperiosteal flap]. Zhonghua. 2011;46:463–8.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Fortes FS, Carrau RL, Snyderman CH, et al. The posterior pedicle inferior turbinate flap: a new vascularized flap for skull base reconstruction. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:1329–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Choby GW, Pinheiro-Neto CD, de Almeida JR, et al. Extended inferior turbinate flap for endoscopic reconstruction of skull base defects. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2014;75:225–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Yip J, Macdonald KI, Lee J, et al. The inferior turbinate flap in skull base reconstruction. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;42:6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Prevedello DM, Barges-Coll J, Fernandez-Miranda JC, et al. Middle turbinate flap for skull base reconstruction: cadaveric feasibility study. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:2094–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Hadad G, Rivera-Serrano CM, Bassagaisteguy LH, et al. Anterior pedicle lateral nasal wall flap: a novel technique for the reconstruction of anterior skull base defects. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:1606–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Zanation AM, Snyderman CH, Carrau RL, Kassam AB, Gardner PA, Prevedello DM. Minimally invasive endoscopic pericranial flap: a new method for endonasal skull base reconstruction. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:13–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Thakker JS, Fernandes R. Evaluation of reconstructive techniques for anterior and middle skull base defects following tumor ablation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:198–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Noone MC, Osguthorpe JD, Patel S. Pericranial flap for closure of paramedian anterior skull base defects. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;127:494–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Patel MR, Shah RN, Snyderman CH, et al. Pericranial flap for endoscopic anterior skull-base reconstruction: clinical outcomes and radioanatomic analysis of preoperative planning. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:506–12; discussion 512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Price JC, Loury M, Carson B, Johns ME. The pericranial flap for reconstruction of anterior skull base defects. Laryngoscope. 1988;98:1159–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Smith JE, Ducic Y. The versatile extended pericranial flap for closure of skull base defects. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:704–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Snyderman CH, Janecka IP, Sekhar LN, Sen CN, Eibling DE. Anterior cranial base reconstruction: role of galeal and pericranial flaps. Laryngoscope. 1990;100:607–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Spinelli HM, Bahtijarevic Z, Rinker B. Reconstruction of upper cranial and cranial base defects utilizing the scalping flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998;101:930–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Velasco-Torres HS, Gomez-Amador JL, Ramirez Andrade JJ, Navarro-Bonnet JM. Vascularized pericranial flap for the reconstruction of dural defect in a watertight fashion in patients with history cranial radiation exposure: technical note. Neurosurg Rev. 2017;40(1):95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Zhang B, Tang P, Qi Y, Xu Z, Wu Y. [Pedicled galeal flap in the reconstruction of head and neck tumor defects]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2000;35:35–8.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Xie L, Lavigne F, Rahal A, Moubayed SP, Ayad T. Facial artery musculomucosal flap for reconstruction of skull base defects: a cadaveric study. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:1854–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    El-Marakby HH. The reliability of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2006;18:41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Kroll SS, Reece GP, Miller MJ, Schusterman MA. Comparison of the rectus abdominis free flap with the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for reconstructions in the head and neck. Am J Surg. 1992;164:615–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Mao C, Yu GY, Peng X, Zhang L, Guo CB, Huang MX [Combined free flap and pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in reconstruction of extensive composite defects in head and neck region: a review of 9 consecutive cases]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006;24:53–6.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Sasaki CT. Pectoralis flap reconstruction in resection of anterior skull base tumors. Auris Nasus Larynx. 1985;12(Suppl 2):S143–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Schneider DS, Wu V, Wax MK. Indications for pedicled pectoralis major flap in a free tissue transfer practice. Head Neck. 2012;34:1106–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Cole I. The lower trapezius island myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of soft tissue of the lateral skull base and neck. Aust N Z J Surg. 1997;67:452–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Ou KL, Dai YH, Wang HJ, et al. The lower trapezius musculocutaneous flap for head and neck reconstruction: two decades of clinical experience. Ann Plast Surg. 2013;71(Suppl 1):S48–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Chowdhury CR, McLean NR, Harrop-Griffiths K, Breach NM. The repair of defects in the head and neck region with the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. J Laryngol Otol. 1988;102:1127–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Seckel BR, Upton J, Freidberg SR, Gilbert KP, Murray JE. Pedicled myocutaneous flap of latissimus dorsi muscle for reconstruction of anterior and middle skull defects: an alternative. Head Neck Surg. 1986;8:165–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Tang CL, Wu YC, Lai CH, et al. Salvage for pectoralis major myocutaneous flap failure in head and neck reconstruction by microvascular flap. J Plast Surg Hand Surg. 2012;46:335–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Hayden RE, Nagel TH. The evolving role of free flaps and pedicled flaps in head and neck reconstruction. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;21:305–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Neligan PC, Mulholland S, Irish J, et al. Flap selection in cranial base reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996;98:1159–66; discussion 1167–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Shonka DC Jr, Potash AE, Jameson MJ, Funk GF. Successful reconstruction of scalp and skull defects: lessons learned from a large series. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:2305–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Wang HT, Erdmann D, Olbrich KC, Friedman AH, Levin LS, Zenn MR. Free flap reconstruction of the scalp and calvaria of major neurosurgical resections in cancer patients: lessons learned closing large, difficult wounds of the dura and skull. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:865–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Califano J, Cordeiro PG, Disa JJ, et al. Anterior cranial base reconstruction using free tissue transfer: changing trends. Head Neck. 2003;25:89–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Izquierdo R, Leonetti JP, Origitano TC, al-Mefty O, Anderson DE, Reichman OH. Refinements using free-tissue transfer for complex cranial base reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993;92:567–74; discussion 575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Kroll SS, Evans GR, Goldberg D, et al. A comparison of resource costs for head and neck reconstruction with free and pectoralis major flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;99:1282–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Valentini V, Fabiani F, Nicolai G, et al. Use of microvascular free flaps in the reconstruction of the anterior and middle skull base. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:790–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Chana JS, Chen HC, Sharma R, Hao SP, Tsai FC. Use of the free vastus lateralis flap in skull base reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111:568–74; discussion 575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Kropf N, Cordeiro CN, McCarthy CM, Hu QY, Cordeiro PG. The vertically oriented free myocutaneous gracilis flap in head and neck reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2008;61:632–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Granzow JW, Suliman A, Roostaeian J, Perry A, Boyd JB. Supraclavicular artery island flap (SCAIF) vs. free fasciocutaneous flaps for head and neck reconstruction. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;148:941–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Niazi ZB, McLean NR, Black MJ. The radial forearm flap: a reconstructive chameleon. J Reconstr Microsurg. 1994;10:299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Aviv JE, Urken ML, Vickery C, Weinberg H, Buchbinder D, Biller HF. The combined latissimus dorsi-scapular free flap in head and neck reconstruction. Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery. 1991;117:1242–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Hierner R, van Loon J, Goffin J, van Calenbergh F. Free latissimus dorsi flap transfer for subtotal scalp and cranium defect reconstruction: report of 7 cases. Microsurgery. 2007;27:425–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Cordeiro PG, Santamaria E. The extended, pedicled rectus abdominis free tissue transfer for head and neck reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 1997;39:53–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Izquierdo R, Origitano TC, al-Mefty O, Leonetti JP, Anderson DE, Reichman OH. Use of vascularized fat from the rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap territory to seal the dura of basicranial tumor resections. Neurosurgery. 1993;32:192–6; discussion 197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Schliephake H, Schmelzeisen R, Neukam FW. The free revascularized rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for the repair of tumour related defects in the head and neck area. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996;34:18–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Urken ML, Turk JB, Weinberg H, Vickery C, Biller HF. The rectus abdominis free flap in head and neck reconstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117:857–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    West CA, Towns G, Bachelor AG, Liddington MI. Reconstruction of skull base and dura using rectus abdominis muscle combined with a vascularised fascial perforator flap. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59:631–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Yamada A, Harii K, Ueda K, Asato H. Free rectus abdominis muscle reconstruction of the anterior skull base. Br J Plast Surg. 1992;45:302–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Marchetti C, Gessaroli M, Cipriani R, Contedini F, Frattarelli M, Staffa G. Use of “perforator flaps” in skull base reconstruction after tumor resection. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110:1303–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Posch NA, Mureau MA, Flood SJ, Hofer SO. The combined free partial vastus lateralis with anterolateral thigh perforator flap reconstruction of extensive composite defects. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:1095–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Zhang B, Li DZ, Tang PZ. [Free perforator flaps in head and neck reconstruction]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2006;22:347–50.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Zhang B, Wan JH, Wan HF, Li DZ, Zhang YX. Free perforator flap transfer for reconstruction of skull base defects after resection of advanced recurrent tumor. Microsurgery. 2014;34:623–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Amin A, Rifaat M, Civantos F, Weed D, Abu-Sedira M, Bassiouny M. Free anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of major craniofacial defects. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2006;22:97–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Camporro D, Fueyo A, Martin C, Carnero S, Llorente JL. Use of lateral circumflex femoral artery system free flaps in skull base reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:888–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Lueg EA. The anterolateral thigh flap: radial forearm’s “big brother” for extensive soft tissue head and neck defects. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:813–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Wolff KD, Kesting M, Thurmuller P, Bockmann R, Holzle F. The anterolateral thigh as a universal donor site for soft tissue reconstruction in maxillofacial surgery. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2006;34:323–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Guerra AB, Metzinger SE, Lund KM, Cooper MM, Allen RJ, Dupin CL. The thoracodorsal artery perforator flap: clinical experience and anatomic study with emphasis on harvest techniques. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114:32–41; discussion 42–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Bianchi B, Ferri A, Ferrari S, Copelli C, Boni P, Sesenna E. Iliac crest free flap for maxillary reconstruction. J Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:2706–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Brown JS. Deep circumflex iliac artery free flap with internal oblique muscle as a new method of immediate reconstruction of maxillectomy defect. Head Neck. 1996;18:412–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Genden EM, Wallace D, Buchbinder D, Okay D, Urken ML. Iliac crest internal oblique osteomusculocutaneous free flap reconstruction of the postablative palatomaxillary defect. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001;127:854–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Iyer S, Chatni S, Kuriakose MA. Free tensor fascia lata-iliac crest osteomusculocutaneous flap for reconstruction of combined maxillectomy and orbital floor defect. Ann Plast Surg. 2012;68:52–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Kelly CP, Moreira-Gonzalez A, Ali MA, et al. Vascular iliac crest with inner table of the ilium as an option in maxillary reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg. 2004;15:23–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Maranzano M, Atzei A. The versatility of vascularized iliac crest with internal oblique muscle flap for composite upper maxillary reconstruction. Microsurgery. 2007;27:37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Bidros RS, Metzinger SE, Guerra AB. The thoracodorsal artery perforator-scapular osteocutaneous (TDAP-SOC) flap for reconstruction of palatal and maxillary defects. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;54:59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Bulut OC, Federspil PA, Plinkert PK, Simon C. Reconstruction of maxillary defects using a free scapular angle flap. HNO. 2013;61:321–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Hardin JC Jr. Reconstruction of maxilla with free latissimus dorsi-scapular osteomusculocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111:965; author reply 965–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Miles BA, Gilbert RW. Maxillary reconstruction with the scapular angle osteomyogenous free flap. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;137:1130–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Valentini V, Gennaro P, Torroni A, et al. Scapula free flap for complex maxillofacial reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:1125–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Baj A, Youssef DA, Monteverdi R, Bianchi B, Combi VA, Gianni AB. Reconstruction of partial maxillary defects with the double-barrel fibula free flap. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2010;30:299–302.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Chang DW, Langstein HN. Use of the free fibula flap for restoration of orbital support and midfacial projection following maxillectomy. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2003;19:147–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Chang YM, Coskunfirat OK, Wei FC, Tsai CY, Lin HN. Maxillary reconstruction with a fibula osteoseptocutaneous free flap and simultaneous insertion of osseointegrated dental implants. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;113:1140–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Futran ND, Wadsworth JT, Villaret D, Farwell DG. Midface reconstruction with the fibula free flap. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:161–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Herman CK, Benacquista T, Brindzei N, Berdichevsky M, Baum T, Strauch B. Single-stage maxillary and nasal floor reconstruction with the double-paddle rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free flap. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2007;23:131–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Kazaoka Y, Shinohara A, Yokou K, Hasegawa T. Functional reconstruction after a total maxillectomy using a fibula osteocutaneous flap with osseointegrated implants. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;103:1244–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Mukohyama H, Haraguchi M, Sumita YI, et al. Rehabilitation of a bilateral maxillectomy patient with a free fibula osteocutaneous flap. J Oral Rehabil. 2005;32:541–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Peng X, Mao C, Yu G, et al. [Functional maxillary reconstruction with free composite fibula flap]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;43:18–21.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Santamaria E, Correa S, Bluebond-Langner R, Orozco H, Ortiz-Monasterio F. A shift from the osteocutaneous fibula flap to the prelaminated osteomucosal fibula flap for maxillary reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;130:1023–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Shipchandler TZ, Waters HH, Knott PD, Fritz MA. Orbitomaxillary reconstruction using the layered fibula osteocutaneous flap. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2012;14:110–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Torroni A, Gennaro P, Nicolai G, Lore B, Valentini V, Iannetti G. Reconstruction of premaxilla with fibula free flap. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18:1385–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    He Y, Zhu HG, Zhang ZY, He J, Sader R. Three-dimensional model simulation and reconstruction of composite total maxillectomy defects with fibula osteomyocutaneous flap flow-through from radial forearm flap. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;108:e6–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Mertens C, Lowenheim H, Hoffmann J. Image data based reconstruction of the midface using a patient-specific implant in combination with a vascularized osteomyocutaneous scapular flap. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2013;41:219–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Shen Y, Sun J, Li J, Li MM, Huang W, Ow A. Special considerations in virtual surgical planning for secondary accurate maxillary reconstruction with vascularised fibula osteomyocutaneous flap. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012;65:893–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Menick FJ. Reconstruction of the cheek. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;108:496–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Menick FJ. Forehead flap: master techniques in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Facial Plast Surg. 2014;30:131–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Menick FJ. Nasal reconstruction with a forehead flap. Clin Plast Surg. 2009;36:443–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Bertrand B, Foletti JM, Noel W, Duron JB, Bardot J. [Submental island flap: a review of the literature]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2015;60:44–53.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Drury P, Ross R. Re: reconstruction of the maxilla by submental flap. ANZ J Surg. 2016;86:315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Faltaous AA, Yetman RJ. The submental artery flap: an anatomic study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996;97:56–60; discussion 61–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Fell MJ, Al-Mutairi KH, McGurk M, Martin D. The submental flap: technical adaptions and clinical application. J Plast Reconstr Aesth Surg. 2015;68:740–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Martin D, Baudet J, Mondie JM, Peri G. [The submental island skin flap. A surgical protocol. Prospects of use]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 1990;35:480–4.Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Martin D, Pascal JF, Baudet J, et al. The submental island flap: a new donor site Anatomy and clinical applications as a free or pedicled flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993;92:867–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Pistre V, Pelissier P, Martin D, Lim A, Baudet J. Ten years of experience with the submental flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;108:1576–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Rahpeyma A, Khajehahmadi S. Developing an algorithm for reconstruction of full thickness cheek defect by submental flap. Am Surg. 2015;81:E403–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Vural E, Suen JY. The submental island flap in head and neck reconstruction. Head Neck. 2000;22:572–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Rieger JM, Tang JA, Wolfaardt J, Harris J, Seikaly H. Comparison of speech and aesthetic outcomes in patients with maxillary reconstruction versus maxillary obturators after maxillectomy. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;40:40–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Kreeft AM, Krap M, Wismeijer D, et al. Oral function after maxillectomy and reconstruction with an obturator. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;41:1387–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Sharma AB, Beumer J 3rd. Reconstruction of maxillary defects: the case for prosthetic rehabilitation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63:1770–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Andrades P, Militsakh O, Hanasono MM, Rieger J, Rosenthal EL. Current strategies in reconstruction of maxillectomy defects. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;137:806–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Abubaker AO, Abouzgia MB. The temporalis muscle flap in reconstruction of intraoral defects: an appraisal of the technique. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;94:24–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Ahmed Djae K, Li Z, Li ZB. Temporalis muscle flap for immediate reconstruction of maxillary defects: review of 39 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:715–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Chhabra N, Healy DY, Freitag SK, Bleier BS. The nasoseptal flap for reconstruction of the medial and inferior orbit. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014;4:763–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Genden EM, Buchbinder D, Urken ML. The submental island flap for palatal reconstruction: a novel technique. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:387–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Pryor SG, Moore EJ, Kasperbauer JL, Hayden RE, Strome SE. Coronoid-temporalis pedicled rotation flap for orbital floor reconstruction of the total maxillectomy defect. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:2051–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Yetzer J, Fernandes R. Reconstruction of orbitomaxillary defects. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71:398–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Habib R, Har-El G. Management of the lacrimal system during maxillectomy. Am J Rhinol. 2004;18:367–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Fisher EW, Clarke PM, Cheesman AD. Prophylaxis of nasolacrimal duct obstruction after major sinus surgery using a silicone stent. J Laryngol Otol. 1991;105:299–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Yeo NK, Wang JH, Chung YS, Jang YJ, Lee BJ. Contributing factors to prevent prolonged epiphora after maxillectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136:229–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Imre A, Imre SS, Pinar E, et al. Transection of nasolacrimal duct in endoscopic medial maxillectomy: implication on epiphora. J Craniofac Surg. 2015;26:e616–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    de Smet MD, Buffam FV, Fairey RN, Voss NJ. Prevention of radiation-induced stenosis of the nasolacrimal duct. Can J Ophthalmol. 1990;25:145–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Sadeghi N, Joshi A. Management of the nasolacrimal system during transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2012;26:e85–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Khoubian JF, Kikkawa DO, Gonnering RS. Trephination and silicone stent intubation for the treatment of canalicular obstruction: effect of the level of obstruction. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:248–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Yigit O, Uzun H, Han T, Cakir BO. [The effect of bicanalicular silicone tube implantation on the success rate of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2005;14:79–82.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Andalib D, Nabie R, Abbasi L. Silicone intubation for nasolacrimal duct stenosis in adults: monocanalicular or bicanalicular intubation. J Craniofac Surg. 2014;25:1009–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Oghan F, Ozcura F. A novel stenting technique in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol Surg. 2008;265:911–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Erkan AN, Yilmazer C, Altan-Yaycioglu R, Akkuzu B, Aktas L. Bicanalicular silicone tubes versus otologic T-tubes in endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. B-ENT. 2008;4:135–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Smirnov G, Tuomilehto H, Terasvirta M, Nuutinen J, Seppa J. Silicone tubing after endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: is it necessary? Am J Rhinol. 2006;20:600–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Kassif Y, Rehany U, David M, Popko A, Rumelt S. The course of epiphora after failure of silicone intubation for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;243:758–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Iwai T, Yasumura K, Yabuki Y, et al. Intraoperative lacrimal intubation to prevent epiphora as a result of injury to the nasolacrimal system after fracture of the naso-orbitoethmoid complex. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;51:e165–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Wang L, Chen D, Wang Z. New technique for lacrimal system intubation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:252–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Tong NX, Zhao YY, Jin XM. Use of the Crawford tube for symptomatic epiphora without nasolacrimal obstruction. Int J Ophthalmol. 2016;9:282–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Smith B, Lisman RD, Baker D. Eyelid and orbital treatment following radical maxillectomy. Ophthalmology. 1984;91:218–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Ishio K, Sugasawa M, Tayama N, Kaga K. Clinical usefulness of endoscopic intranasal dacryocystorhinostomy. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2007;559:95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Abu-Ghanem S, Ben-Cnaan R, Leibovitch I, et al. Outcomes of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy after maxillectomy in patients with paranasal sinus and skull base tumors. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;271:1513–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Diba R, Saadati H, Esmaeli B. Outcomes of dacryocystorhinostomy in patients with head and neck tumors. Head Neck. 2005;27:72–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Lanciego C, Navarro S, Velasco J, Perea M, Cuena-Boy R, Garcia-Garcia L. Randomized comparison of nasolacrimal cryoplasty versus plastic lacrimal stenting in the management of epiphora in adults. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2009;20:1588–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Lanciego C, De Miguel S, Padilla M, Perea M, Rodriguez-Merlo R, Garcia-Garcia L. Nasolacrimal stenting: toward improving outcomes with a simple modification of the song stent. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2006;29:586–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Kim JH, Shin JH, Song HY, et al. Long-term results and factors affecting patency after removal of nasolacrimal stents. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006;17:1125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Paul L, Pinto I, Vicente JM. Treatment of complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system by temporary placement of nasolacrimal polyurethane stents: preliminary results. Clin Radiol. 2003;58:876–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Mombaerts I, Colla B. Modified Jones’ lacrimal bypass surgery with an angled extended Jones’ tube. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1403–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Service de Chirurgie Plastique et ReconstructriceGustave-RoussyVillejuifFrance

Personalised recommendations