Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in the Elderly

  • Carlos Guido MussoEmail author
  • Manuel F. Vilas


In healthy old and very old individuals, serum electrolyte levels are in the normal range, but they can be easily altered compared to the young individuals. This phenomenon can be attributed to a reduced homeostatic capability in the elderly, which is tightly related to the significant and prevalent structural and functional changes suffered by the aged kidney. Water, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, and acid-base disorders have particular characteristics in the elderly, mainly in the frail ones (geriatric syndromes) since they are usually exposed to diseases, and pharmacological variables in a setting of an undermined homeostatic capability.


Hyponatremia Hypernatremia Hypokalemia Hyperkalemia Hypomagnesemia Hypermagnesemia Hypocalcemia Hypercalcemia Hypophosphatemia Hyperphosphatemia Acidosis Alkalosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nephrology DivisionHospital Italiano de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Physiology DepartmentInstituto Universitario del Hospital Italiano de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Ageing Biology UnitHospital Italiano de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina

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