Advertisement

Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Africa

  • Asseged B. DibabaEmail author
  • C. J. Daborn
Chapter

Abstract

There is a substantial amount of epidemiological information available about tuberculosis in cattle, other domestic animals, and wild animals in Africa. However, the information is often incomplete, fragmented, historical, contradictory, and difficult to access. The purpose of this chapter is to collate the available information, highlighting the contradictions, signposting the direction of further studies, and making the existing knowledge more readily available to those with an interest in the epidemiology and control of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Africa. It is clear that chronic diseases such as BTB are difficult to investigate because animals with the disease can survive for years with, and often without, clinical signs. Its wide host range is another challenge, as are the varying interspecies transmission patterns and the marked variation in susceptibility of various host species. The Epidemiologic Problem Oriented Approach (EPOA) methodology was applied to examine the complexity of the epidemiology of BTB, with special reference to Africa, and this information is presented in this chapter.

Keywords

Africa Bovine tuberculosis Wildlife Cattle Epidemiology Epidemiologic Problem Oriented Approach Mycobacterium bovis 

References

  1. Acevedo P, Vicente J, Höfle U et al (2007) Estimation of European wild boar relative abundance and aggregation: a novel method in epidemiological risk assessment. Epidemiol Infect 135(3):519–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams AP, Bolin SR, Fine AE et al (2013) Comparison of PCR versus culture for detection of M. bovis after experimental inoculation of various matrices held under environmental conditions for extended periods. Appl Environ Microbiol 79(20):6501–6506PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alhaji I (1976) Bovine tuberculosis: a general review with special reference to Nigeria. Vet Bull 46(11):829–839Google Scholar
  4. Aliyu MM, Adamu JY, Bilyaminu YA (2009) Current prevalence of tuberculous lesions among slaughtered cattle in northeastern states of Nigeria. Revue Élev Méd vét Pays Trop 62(1):13–16Google Scholar
  5. Allen GM (1988) Tuberculosis in sheep—a very rare disease. Surveillance 15(5):8–9Google Scholar
  6. Anon (1994) Livestock disease eradication evaluation of the cooperative state–federal bovine tuberculosis eradication program. Committee on Bovine Tuberculosis. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Anon (2007a) Report of the meeting of bovine tuberculosis sub-group of the task force for monitoring animal disease eradication held in Seville, Spain, 14–15 November 2007. European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-GeneralGoogle Scholar
  8. Anon (2007b) Bovine TB: the scientific evidence. Final report of the independent scientific group on cattle TB. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Anon (2013) Bovine tuberculosis scheme manual (Interim). Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of South Africa. pp 80Google Scholar
  10. Asseged B, Lübke-Becker A, Lemma E et al (2000) Bovine tuberculosis: a cross-sectional and epidemiological study in and around Addis Ababa. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr 48:71–80Google Scholar
  11. Asseged B, Tamiru B, Habtemariam T (2014) Status and control of bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopia. In: Thoen CO, Steel JH, Kaneene JB (eds) Zoonotic tuberculosis: Mycobacterium bovis and other pathogenic mycobacteria, 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA, pp 109–132Google Scholar
  12. Awad FI (1962) Studies on type-determination and epidemiology of tuberculosis among cattle in Sudan. Transbound Emerg Dis 9(9):890–898Google Scholar
  13. Awah-Ndukum J, Kudi AC, Bradley G et al (2010) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in abattoirs of the littoral and western highland regions of Cameroon: a cause for public health concern. Vet Med Int 2010:495015. p8.  https://doi.org/10.4061/2010/495015 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Awah-Ndukum J, Kudi AC, Bradley GI et al (2012) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon based on the detection of lesions in slaughtered cattle and tuberculin skin tests of live cattle. Vet Med 57(2):59–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aylate A, Shah SN, Aleme H et al (2013) Bovine tuberculosis: prevalence and diagnostic efficacy of routine meat inspection procedure in Woldiya municipality abattoir north Wollo zone, Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod (3):855–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bala AN, Garba AE, Yazah AJ (2011) Bacterial and parasitic zoonoses encountered at slaughter in Maiduguri abattoir, Northeastern Nigeria. Vet World 4(10):437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barlow ND, Kean JM, Hickling G et al (1997) A simulation model for the spread of bovine tuberculosis within New Zealand cattle herds. Prev Vet Med 32:57–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barlow ND, Kean JM, Caldwell NP et al (1998) Modelling the regional dynamics and management of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand cattle herds. Prev Vet Med 36:25–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bedard BG, Martin SW, Chinombo D (1993) A prevalence study of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis in Malawi. Prev Vet Med 16(3):193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bengis RG, Kriek NPJ, Keet DF et al (1996) An outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in a free-living African buffalo (Syncerus caffer Sparrman) population in the Kruger National Park: a preliminary report. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 63:15–18PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Berg S, Garcia-Pelayo MC, Muller B et al (2011) African 2, a clonal complex of M. bovis epidemiologically important in East Africa. J Bacteriol 193(3):670–678PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bernard F, Vincent C, Matthieu L et al (2005) Tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence survey on dairy cattle in Mbarara milk basin (Uganda). Prev Vet Med 67:267–281PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berrada J (1993) Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle in Morocco: preparation and evaluation of chemical extracts for use in detection of immune responses. PhD Thesis, Iowa State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  24. Beyi AF, Gezahegne KZ, Mussa A et al (2014) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in dromedary camels and awareness of pastoralists about its zoonotic importance in Eastern Ethiopia. J Vet Med Anim Health 6(4):109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Biet F, Boschiroli ML, Thorel MF et al (2005) Zoonotic aspects of M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). Vet Res 36:411–436PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Bonsu OA, Laing E, Akanmori BD (2000) Prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle in the Dangme-West district of Ghana, public health implications. Acta Tropica 76:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Boukary AR, Thys E, Rigouts L et al (2012) Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis and molecular characterization of M. bovis strains in urban settings in Niger. Trans Emerg Dis 59(6):490–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brahmbhatt DP, Fosgate GT, Dyason E et al (2012) Contacts between domestic livestock and wildlife at the Kruger National Park interface of the Republic of South Africa. Prev Vet Med 103:16–21PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Brosch R, Gordon SV, Marmiesse M et al (2002) A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(6):3684–3689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brush OF (1898) The association of human and bovine tuberculosis. Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co. Printers, New York, p 140Google Scholar
  31. Cadmus SIB, Atsanda NN, Oni SO et al (2004) Bovine tuberculosis in one cattle herd in Ibadan in Nigeria. Vet Med Czech 49(11):406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Carmichael J (1937) A brief note on tuberculosis in Tropical Africa with special reference to Uganda. JCPT 50:383–385Google Scholar
  33. Carmichael JL (1938) Tuberculosis of sheep in Uganda. Vet Rec 50:1138–1147Google Scholar
  34. Cassidy JP, Bryson DG, Pollock JM et al (1998) Early lesion formation in cattle experimentally infected with M. bovis. J Comp Pathol 119:2744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cleaveland S, Shaw DJ, Mfinanga SG et al (2007) Mycobacterium bovis in rural Tanzania: risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations. Tubercle 87:30–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Collins CH, Grange JM (1983) The bovine tubercle bacillus: a review. J Appl Bacteriol 55:13–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Collins D, Radford AJ, de Lisle GW et al (1994) Diagnosis and epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis using molecular biological approaches. Vet Microbiol 40:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cook AJC, Tuchili LM, Buvet A et al (1996) Human and bovine tuberculosis in the Monze District of Zambia—a cross-sectional study. Br Vet J 152:37PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Cordes DO, Bullians JA, Lake DE et al (1981) Observations on tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in sheep. N Z Vet J 29:60–62PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Corner LAL (2006) The role of wild animal populations in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic animals: how to assess the risk. Vet Microbiol 112:303–312PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Cosivi O, Grange JM, Daborn CJ et al (1998) Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 4(1):59–70PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Costello E, Doherty ML, Monaghan TML et al (1998) A study of cattle-to-cattle transmission of M. bovis infection. Vet J 155:245–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Costello E, O’Grady D, Flynn O et al (1999) Study of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping for epidemiological investigation of M. bovis infection. J Clin Microbiol 37(10):3217–3222PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Cousins D (2001) Mycobacterium bovis infection and control in domestic livestock. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 20(1):71–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cowie CE, Marreos N, Gortázar C et al (2014) Shared risk factors for multiple livestock diseases: a case study of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. Res Vet Sci 97:491–449PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Daborn CJ, Grange JM (1993) HIV/AIDS and its implications for the control of animal tuberculosis. Br Vet J 149:405–417PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Dailloux MC, Laurain C, Weber M et al (1999) Water and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Water Res 33(10):2219–2228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Damina MS, Owoludun OA, Chukwukere S et al (2011) The use of deletion analysis in the detection of Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium africanum among slaughtered cattle in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Niger Vet J 32(1):9–15Google Scholar
  49. Daniel ZRH, Evans S, Rolfe R et al (2009) Outbreak of tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in golden Guernsey goats in Great Britain. Vet Rec 165:335–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Davidson RM, Alley MR, Beatson NS (1981) Tuberculosis in a flock of sheep. N Z Vet J 29:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. De Klerk-Lorist L-M (2004) The evaluation of a BCG vaccine against bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). MSc dissertation. University of PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  52. Deresa B, Conraths FJ, Ameni G (2013) Abattoir-based study on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis in Ethiopia using conventional and molecular tools. Acta Vet Scand 55(1):15PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. de Vos V, Bengis RG, Kriek NPJ et al (2001) The epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 68:119–130Google Scholar
  54. Di Marco V, Mazzone P, Capucchio MT et al (2012) Epidemiological significance of the domestic black pig (Sus scrofa) in maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in Sicily. J Clin Microbiol 50(4):1209–1218PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Drewe JA, Pfeiffer DU, Kaneene JB (2014) Epidemiology of M. bovis. In: Thoen CO, Steele JH, Kaneene JB (eds) Zoonotic tuberculosis: M. bovis and other pathogenic mycobacteria, 3rd edn. Wiley, Oxford, pp 63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Driscoll EE, Hoffman JI, Green LE et al (2011) A preliminary study of genetic factors that influence susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in the British cattle herd. PLoS One 6(4):e18806PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Duffield BJ, Young DA (1985) Survival of Mycobacterium bovis in defined environmental conditions. Vet Microbiol 10:193–197PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Durnez L, Sadiki H, Katakweba A et al (2009) The prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in and around Morogoro, Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod 41:1653–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Du Toit PJ (1936) Bovine tuberculosis in South Africa. Tuberculosis 5:421–422Google Scholar
  60. Edwards DS, Johnston AM, Mead GC (1997) Meat inspection: an overview of present practices and future trends. Vet J 154:135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ejeh EF, Adeshokan HK, Raji MA et al (2014) Current status of bovine tuberculosis in Otukpo, Nigeria. J Anim Prod Adv 4(8):501–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Elias K, Hussein D, Asseged B et al (2008) Status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 27(3):915–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Elmossalami E, Siam MA, Sergany ME (1971) Studies on tuberculous-like lesions in slaughtered camels. Zoonoses Public Health 18:253–261Google Scholar
  64. El-Olemy GM, El-Bassiouni AAA, Negm S (1985) Tuberculosis in Toukh-Tanbisha, Menufia, Egypt. In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on veterinary epidemiology and economics. www.sciquest.org.nz
  65. El Sanousi SM, Omer EE (1985) Bovine tuberculosis in Benghazi Cow Project (Libya). Int J Zoonoses 12(3):203–206PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Evangelista TBR, De Anda JH (1996) Tuberculosis in dairy calves: risk of Mycobacterium spp. exposure associated with management of colostrum and milk. Prev Vet Med 27:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fine AE, O’Brien DJ, Winterstein SR et al (2011) An effort to isolate M. bovis from environmental substrates during investigations of bovine tuberculosis transmission sites (cattle farms and wildlife areas) in Michigan, USA. ISRN Vet Sci. p 11.  https://doi.org/10.5402/2011/787181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Firdessa R, Tschopp R, Wubete A et al (2012) High prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle in central Ethiopia: implications for the dairy industry and public health. PLoS One 7(12):e52851PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Fitzgerald SD, Kaneene JB (2012) Wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis worldwide: hosts, pathology, surveillance, and control. Vet Pathol 50(3):488–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Francis J (1950) Control of infection with the bovine tubercle bacillus. Lancet 255(6593):34–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fullerton AGR (1902) A case of tuberculosis in a sheep. J Comp Pathol 15:102–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gallagher J, Macadam I, Sayer J et al (1972) Pulmonary tuberculosis in free-living lechwe antelope in Zambia. Trop Anim Health Prod 4:204–213PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gathogo SM, Kuria JKN, Ombui JN (2012) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughter cattle in Kenya: a postmortem, microbiological and DNA molecular study. Trop Anim Health Prod 44:1739–1744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gray DF, Graham-Smith H, Noble JL (1960) Variations in natural resistance to tuberculosis. J Hyg Camb 58:215–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Griffin JM, Hahesy T, Lynch K et al (1993) The association of cattle husbandry practices, environmental factors and farmer characteristics with the occurrence of chronic BTB in dairy herds in the Republic of Ireland. Prev Vet Med 17:145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Griffin JM, Martin SW, Thorburn MA et al (1996) A case-control study on the association of selected risk factors with the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in the Republic of Ireland. Prev Vet Med 27:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Guilbride PDL, Rollinson DHL, Mcanulty EG et al (1963) Tuberculosis in the free living African (Cape) Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer. Sparrman). J Comp Pathol 73:337–348PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gumi B, Schelling E, Firdessa R et al (2012) Low prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Somali pastoral livestock, southeast Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod 44(7):1445–1450PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Habtemariam T (1989) Utility of epidemiologic simulation models in the planning of trypanosomiasis control programs. Ann de la Societe Belge de. Med Trop 69:109–124Google Scholar
  80. Hiko A, Agga GE (2011) First-time detection of Mycobacterium species from goats in Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod 43:133–139PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Humblet MF, Boschiroli ML, Saegerman C (2009) Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle: a stratified approach. Vet Res 40:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ibrahim S, Cadmus SIB, Umoh JU et al (2012) Tuberculosis in humans and cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria: risk factors analysis. Vet Med Int.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/865924 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Inangolet FO, Demelash B, Oloya J et al (2008) A cross-sectional study of BTB in the transhumant and agro-pastoral cattle herds in the border areas of Katakwi and Moroto districts, Uganda. Trop Anim Health Prod 40:501–508PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jenkins AO, Cadmus SIB, Venter EH (2011) Molecular epidemiology of human and animal tuberculosis in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Vet Microbiol 151:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jiwa SFH, Kazwala RR, Aboud AAO et al (1997) Bovine tuberculosis in the Lake Victoria Zone of Tanzania and its possible consequences for human health in the HIV/AIDS era. Vet Res Commun 21:533–539PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Johnston AJK, Conlan CA, Donnelly JLN et al (2011) Recurrence of bovine tuberculosis breakdowns in Great Britain: risk factors and prediction. Prev Vet Med 102:22–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jolles AE, Cooper DV, Levin SA (2005) Hidden effects of chronic tuberculosis in African buffalo. Ecology 86(9):2258–2264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Jori F, Mokospasetso M, Etter E et al (2013) Preliminary assessment of bovine tuberculosis at the livestock/wildlife interface in two protected areas of northern Botswana. Trans Emerg Dis 60(Suppl. 1):28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kassa GM, Abebe F, Worku Y et al (2012) Tuberculosis in goats and sheep in Afar pastoral region of Ethiopia and isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from goat. Vet Med Int 2012: 8.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/869146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Karolemeas K, McKinle TJ, Clifton-Hadley RS et al (2010) Predicting prolonged bovine tuberculosis breakdowns in Great Britain as an aid to control. Prev Vet Med 97:183–190PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Karolemeas K, McKinle TJ, Clifton-Hadley RS et al (2011) Recurrence of bovine tuberculosis breakdowns in Great Britain: risk factors and prediction. Prev Vet Med 102:22–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Katale BZ, Mbugi EV, Karimuribo ED et al (2009) The prevalence of M. bovis infection and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in and around Morogoro. BMC Vet Res 9:267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Katale BZ, Mbugi EV, Kendal S et al (2012) Bovine tuberculosis at the human-livestock-wildlife interface: is it a public health problem in Tanzania? A review. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 79(2):463.  https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v79i2.463 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kazwala RR, Daborn CJ, Kusiluka LJ et al (1998) Isolation of Mycobacterium species from raw milk of pastoral cattle of the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod 30(4):233–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kinne J, Johnson B, Jahans KL et al (2006) Camel tuberculosis—a case report. Trop Anim Health Prod 38:207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Langmuir AD (1961) Epidemiology of airborne infection. Bacteriol Rev 25(3):173–181PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Laval G, Ameni G (2004) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Zebu cattle under traditional animal husbandry in Boji district of western Ethiopia. Rev Med Vet (Toulouse) 155:494–499Google Scholar
  98. Lewis PA, Sanderson ES (1927) The histological expression of the natural resistance of rabbits to infection with human and bovine type tubercle bacilli. J Exp Med 45(2):291–304PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Williams BG et al (2009) Drivers of tuberculosis epidemics: the role of risk factors and social determinants. Soc Sci Med 68:2240–2246PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Lurie MB (1930) Experimental epidemiology of tuberculosis: the effect of crowding upon tuberculosis in guinea pigs, acquired by contact and by inoculation. J Exp Med 51(5):729–741PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Maddock ECG (1934) Further studies on the survival time of the bovine tubercle bacillus in soil, soil and dung, in dung and on grass, with experiments on feeding guinea pigs and calves on grass artificially infected with bovine tubercle bacilli. J Hygiene 34(3):372–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Magnus K (1966) Epidemiological basis of tuberculosis eradication: 3. Risk of pulmonary tuberculosis after human and bovine infection. Bull World Health Organ 35:483–508PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Malone E, Wilson EC, Pollock JM et al (2003) Investigations into an outbreak of tuberculosis in a flock of sheep in contact with tuberculous cattle. J Vet Med B 50:500–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mamo G, Kassaye A, Sanni M et al (2009) A cross sectional study of camel tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr 57:13–20Google Scholar
  105. Mamo G, Bayleyegn G, Sisay TT (2011) Pathology of camel tuberculosis and molecular characterization of its causative agents in pastoral regions of Ethiopia. PLoS One 6(1):15862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Manley FH (1929) A Note on bovine tuberculosis in tropical Africa (British Cameroons). J Comp Pathol Therap 42:276–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Marangon S, Martini M, Dalla PM et al (1998) A case-control study on bovine tuberculosis in the Veneto Region (Italy). Prev Vet Med 34:87–95PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Marianelli C, Cifani N, Capucchio MT et al (2010) A case of generalized bovine tuberculosis in a sheep. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:445–448PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Mason FE (1912) Some observations on tuberculosis in camels in Egypt. J Comp Pathol Ther 25:109–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mason FE (1917) Tuberculosis in camels. J Comp Pathol Ther 30:80–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. McCluskey B, Lombard J, Strunk S et al (2014) Mycobacterium bovis in California dairies: a case series of 2002–2013 outbreaks. Prev Vet Med 115:205–216PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. McFadyean J (1900) Tuberculosis of the sheep. J Comp Pathol 13:59–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Menzies FD, Neill SD (2000) Cattle-to-cattle transmission of bovine tuberculosis. Vet J 160:92–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Michel AL (2008) Tuberculosis in wild and domestic animals in South Africa. PhD thesis, Universiteit Utrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  115. Michel AL, Bengis RG (2012) The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 79(2):453.  https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v79i2.453 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Michel AL, Bengis RG, Keet DF et al (2006) Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: implications and challenges. Vet Microbiol 112:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Michel AL, de Klerk L-M, van Pittius NCG et al (2007) Bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes: observations regarding M. bovis shedding into water and exposure to environmental mycobacteria. BMC Vet Res 3(1):23PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Michel AL, Hlokwe TM, Coetzee ML et al (2008) High M. bovis genetic diversity in a low prevalence setting. Vet Microbiol 126:151–159PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Moiane I, Machado A, Santos N et al (2014) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factor assessment in cattle in rural livestock areas of Govuro District in the southeast of Mozambique. PLoS One 9(3):e91527PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Morris RS, Pfeiffer DU, Jackson R (1994) The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections. Vet Microbiol 40:153–177PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Moustafa H, Mostafa AMB, Zayed I (1964) Some observations on the incidence and histopathology of pneumonia in Egyptian sheep with special reference to two cases with tuberculosis. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 11(3):231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Müller BM, Hilty S, Berg MC et al (2009) African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of M. bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad. J Bacteriol 191(6):1951–1960PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Munroe FA, Dohoo IR, McNab WB et al (1999) Risk factors for the between-herd spread of Mycobacterium bovis in Canadian cattle and cervids between 1985 and 1994. Prev Vet Med 41:119–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Munyeme M, Muma JB, Skjerve E et al (2008) Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in traditional cattle of the livestock/wildlife interface areas in the Kafue basin of Zambia. Prev Vet Med 85:317–328PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Munyeme M, Muma JB, Munang’andu HM (2011) Failure to detect tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche smithemani) in Zambia. BMC Res Notes 4:233. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-0500/4/233 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Munyeme M, Munang’andu HM, Nambota A et al (2012) The nexus between bovine TB and fasciolosis infections in cattle of the Kafue Basin ecosystem in Zambia: implications on abattoir surveillance. Vet Med Int.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/921869 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Muwonge A, Kankya C, Godfroid J et al (2010) Prevalence and associated risk factors of mycobacterial infections in slaughter pigs from Mubende district in Uganda. Trop Anim Health Prod 42:905–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Muwonge A, Johansen TB, Vigdis E et al (2012) Mycobacterium bovis infections in slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda: a public health concern. BMC Vet Res 8:168PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mwakapuja RS, Makondo ZE, Malakalinga J et al (2013) Molecular characterization of M. bovis isolates from pastoral livestock at Mikumi-Selous ecosystem in the eastern Tanzania. Tuberculosis 93:668–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Napp S, Allepuz A, Mercader I et al (2013) Evidence of goats acting as domestic reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis. Vet Rec 172:663PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Neill SD, Hanna J, O’Brien JJ et al (1988) Excretion of Mycobacterium bovis by experimentally infected cattle. Vet Rec 123:340–343PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Neill SD, O’Brien JJ, Hanna J (1991) A mathematical model for M. bovis excretion from tuberculous cattle. Vet Microbiol 28:103–109PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Ngandolo BNR, Müller B, Diguimbaye-Djaïbe C et al (2009) Comparative assessment of fluorescence polarization and tuberculin skin testing for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle. Prev Vet Med 89:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nicholson MJ, Butterworth MH (1986) A guide to condition scoring of zebu cattle. ILRI, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  135. Nugent G (2011) Maintenance, spillover and spillback transmission of bovine tuberculosis in multi-host wildlife complexes: a New Zealand case study. Vet Microbiol 151:34–42PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Okeke LA, Cadmus S, Okeke IO et al (2014) Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J 18(S1):5.  https://doi.org/10.11694/pamj.supp.2014.18.1.3841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Oloya J, Opuda-Asibo J, Djønne B et al (2006) Responses to tuberculin among Zebu cattle in the transhumance regions of Karamoja and Nakasongola district of Uganda. Trop Anim Health Prod 38:275–283PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Oloya J, Muma JB, Opuda-Asibo J et al (2007) Risk factors for herd-level BTB seropositivity in transhumant cattle in Uganda. Prev Vet Med 80:318–329PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Opara M (2005) Pathological conditions of condemned bovine lungs from abattoirs in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Anim Res Int 2(2):314–318Google Scholar
  140. Opie EL (1931) The epidemiology of tuberculosis of Negroes. Tubercle 12(5):207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Opuda-Asibo J (1995) Regional and Country Status Reports, Uganda. In: Thoen CO, Steel JH (eds) Mycobacterium bovis infection in animals and humans, 1st edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, pp 299–303Google Scholar
  142. O’Reilly L, Daborn CJ (1995) The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections in animals and man: a review. Tuber Lung Dis 7:1–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Paine R, Martinaglia G (1929) Tuberculosis in wild buck living under natural conditions. J Comp Pathol Ther 42:1):1–1):8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Palmer MV (2013) Mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts. Trans Emerg Dis 60:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Palmer MV, Waters WR, Whipple DL (2004) Investigation of the transmission of M. bovis from deer to cattle through indirect contact. Am J Vet Res 65:1483–1489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Pesciaroli M, Alvarez J, Boniotti MB et al (2014) Tuberculosis in domestic animal species. Res Vet Sci 97:S78–S85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Phillips CJ, Foster CR, Morris PA et al (2002) Genetic and management factors that influence the susceptibility of cattle to Mycobacterium bovis infection. Anim Health Res Rev 3(1):3–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Phillips CJC, Foster CRW, Morris P et al (2003) The transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection to cattle. Rev Res Vet Sci 74:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Pittler DR, Steel JH (1995) Germany: regional and country status reports. In: Thoen CO, Steel JH (eds) M. bovis infection in animals and humans. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IAGoogle Scholar
  150. Ranney F (1958) Status of federal-state cooperative tuberculosis eradication. Dis Chest 34(6):577–585PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Renwick R, White PCL, Bengis RG (2007) Bovine tuberculosis in southern African wildlife: a multi-species host-pathogen system. Epidemiol Infect 135:529–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Ribeiro-Lima J, Enns EA, Thompson B et al (2015) From network analysis to risk analysis—An approach to risk-based surveillance for bovine tuberculosis in Minnesota, US. Prev Vet Med 118(4):328–340PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Rodwell TC, Whyte IJ, Boyce WM (2001) Evaluation of population effects of bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). J Mammal 82(1):231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ryan TJ, Livingstone PG, Ramsey DSL et al (2006) Advances in understanding disease epidemiology and implications for control and eradication of tuberculosis in livestock: the experience from New Zealand. Vet Microbiol 112:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sahraoui N, Müller B, Guetarni D et al (2009) Molecular characterization of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria. BMC Vet Res 5:4.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1746–6148-5-4 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Sahraoui N, Müller B, Mamache B et al (2011) Tuberculosis in cattle and goats in the north of Algeria. Vet Res 4(4):100–103Google Scholar
  157. Sakamoto K (2012) The pathology of M. tuberculosis infection. Vet Pathol 49(3):423–439PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Sheik-Mohamed A, Velema JP (1999) Where health care has no access: the nomadic populations of sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health 4(10):695–707PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Shirima GM, Kazwala RR, Kambarage DM (2003) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in different farming systems in the eastern zone of Tanzania. Prev Vet Med 57:167–172PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Skuce RA, Allen AR, McDowell SWJ (2012) Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis: a literature review. Vet Med Int 2012:10.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/621210 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Smith T (1898) A comparative study of bovine tubercle bacilli and of human bacilli from sputum. J Exp Med 3:451–511PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Smith NH (2012) The global distribution and phylogeography of M. bovis clonal complexes. Infect Gen Evol 12:857–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sulieman M, Hamid ME (2002) Identification of acid-fast bacteria from caseous lesions in cattle in Sudan. J Vet Med B 49:415–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Swai SE, Schoonman L (2012) Differences in prevalence of tuberculosis in indigenous and crossbred cattle under extensive and intensive management systems in Tanga Region of Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod 44:459–465PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Tadayon K, Mosavari N, Feizabadi MM (2013) An epidemiological perspective on bovine tuberculosis spotlighting facts and dilemmas in Iran, a historically Zebu-dominant farming country. Iranian J Microbiol 5(1):1–13Google Scholar
  166. Tafess K, Dawo F, Sori T et al (2011) Prevalence of caprine tuberculosis in Mid-Rift Valley area of Oromia, Ethiopia. Afr J Microbiol Res 5(12):1473–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Tag el Din MH, el Nour Gamaan I (1982) Tuberculosis in sheep in the Sudan. Trop Anim Health Prod 14(1):26PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. Tanner M, Michel AL (1999) Investigation of the viability of M. bovis under different environmental conditions in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 66:185–190PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. Tanner M, Inlameia O, Michel A et al (2014) Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis in cattle and African buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique. Transbound Emerg Dis 62(6):632–638PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Tarnagda Z, Kanyala E, Zingué D et al (2014) Prevalence of tuberculosis in bovine carcasses in two slaughterhouses of Burkina Faso. Int J Microbiol Immunol Res 2(6):92–100Google Scholar
  171. Tschopp R, Schelling E, Hattendorf J et al (2010) Repeated cross-sectional skin testing for bovine tuberculosis in cattle kept in a traditional husbandry system in Ethiopia. Vet Rec 167:250–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tschopp R, Bobosha K, Aseffa A et al (2011) Bovine tuberculosis at a cattle-small ruminant-human interface in Meskan, Gurage region, Central Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis 11(1):318PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tschopp R, Abera B, Sourou SY et al (2013) Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence in cattle from selected milk cooperatives in Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia. BMC Vet Res 9(1):163PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Unger F, Münstermann S (2004) Assessment of the impact of zoonotic infections (bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis) in selected regions of the Gambia, Senegal, Guinea, and Guinea Bissau. - A scoping study - DFID Animal Health Programme. Banjul, the GambiaGoogle Scholar
  175. Vekemans M, Cartoux M, Diagbouga S et al (1999) Potential source of human exposure to Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso, in the context of the HIV epidemic. Clin Microbiol Infect 5:617–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Whipple DL, Bolin CA, Mille JM (1996) Distribution of lesions in cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis. J Vet Diagn Invest 8:351–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wilesmith JW, Little TWA, Thompson HV et al (1982) Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. I. Tuberculosis in cattle. J Hyg 89:195–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Woodford MH (1982) Tuberculosis in wildlife in the Ruwenzori National Park, Uganda (Part II). Trop Anim Health Prod 14(3):155–160PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary MedicineTuskegee UniversityTuskegeeUSA
  2. 2.Tigoni Veterinary Services (TVS)NairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations