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Holes and Patches: An Account of Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis in Uganda

  • A. MuwongeEmail author
  • L. Nyakarahuka
  • W. Ssengooba
  • J. Oloya
  • F. Olea-Popelka
  • C. Kankya
Chapter

Abstract

Uganda, known as “the pearl of Africa,” is richly endowed by nature, but it comes at a cost. The fertile and attractive landscapes, abundant water, and optimal temperature not only sustain the Ugandan crop and livestock industries but also ensure a constant abundance of pathogens and parasites affecting humans and animals. These features cause a constant shift of environmental frontiers compounded by the explosive population growth experienced in the country and an increasingly porous human–animal interface. These shifts occur at such a tremendous pace that the holes created at this interface are becoming harder to patch. Pathogens like Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), exploit these constant changes and cross species barriers to establish new wildlife and domestic species disease reservoirs. Because of these events, M. bovis has now become a multi-host, endemic pathogen, and as zoonotic TB it became a serious public health threat in Uganda. The sustainable growth of an agriculture-based country like Uganda is dependent on the health of its people, crops, and animals, and it is imperative to deal with diseases that threaten this growth. It is critical to be able to diagnose and control TB caused by M. bovis in livestock, wildlife species, and humans and to understand the relevant risks and strategies required to control and eventually eradicate the infection. This chapter addresses these various issues.

Keywords

Bovine tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis Cattle movement networks Livestock husbandry Molecular epidemiology Non-tuberculous mycobacteria Uganda Zoonotic tuberculosis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Muwonge
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. Nyakarahuka
    • 2
  • W. Ssengooba
    • 3
  • J. Oloya
    • 4
  • F. Olea-Popelka
    • 5
  • C. Kankya
    • 3
  1. 1.The Roslin Institute, The Dick School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medicine and Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Edinburgh, Easter BushEdinburghUK
  2. 2.Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources & BiosecurityMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda
  3. 3.Mycobacteriology Laboratory, Department of Medical MicrobiologyMakerere University College of Health SciencesKampalaUganda
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics/Population Health, College of Public Health, 132 Coverdell CenterUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  5. 5.Department of Clinical Sciences and Mycobacteria Research Laboratories (MRL), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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