Intestinal Trematode Infections

  • Rafael ToledoEmail author
  • Maria Alvárez-Izquierdo
  • Carla Muñoz-Antoli
  • J. Guillermo Esteban
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1154)


Intestinal trematodes are among the most common types of parasitic worms. About 76 species belonging to 14 families have been recorded infecting humans. Infection commonly occurs when humans eat raw or undercooked foods that contain the infective metacercariae. These parasites are diverse with regard to their morphology, geographical distribution, and life cycle, which make it difficult to study the parasitic diseases that they cause. Many of these intestinal trematodes have been considered as endemic parasites in the past. However, the geographical limits and the population at risk are currently expanding and changing in relation to factors such as growing international markets, improved transportation systems, new eating habits in developed countries and demographic changes. These factors make it necessary to better understand intestinal trematode infections. This chapter describes the main features of human intestinal trematodes in relation to their biology, epidemiology, host–parasite relationships, pathogenicity, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and control.


Digenea Trematode infection Intestinal trematodesbiologyepidemiologyhost–parasite relationshipspathogenicitydiagnosistreatmentcontrol 



This work was supported supported by Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Madrid, Spain) (grant number: BFU2016-75639-P) and by Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (Madrid, Spain) (No. RD12/0018/0013, Red de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Tropicales—RICET, IV National Program of I+D+I 2008-2011, ISCIII—Subdirección General de Redes y Centros de Investigación Cooperativa and FEDER).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Toledo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Alvárez-Izquierdo
    • 1
  • Carla Muñoz-Antoli
    • 1
  • J. Guillermo Esteban
    • 1
  1. 1.Área de Parasitología, Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica y Parasitología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de ValenciaValenciaSpain

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