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Schistosomiasis

  • Philip T. LoVerdeEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1154)

Abstract

Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity in the world; it is second only to malaria as a major infectious disease. Globally, it is estimated that the disease affects over 250 million people in 78 countries of the world and is responsible for some 280,000 deaths each year. The three major schistosomes infecting humans are Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium. This chapter covers a wide range of aspects of schistosomiasis, including basic biology of the parasites, epidemiology, immunopathology, treatment, control, vaccines, and genomics/proteomics. In this chapter, the reader will understand the significant toll this disease takes in terms of mortality and morbidity. A description of the various life stages of schistosomes is presented, which will be informative for both those unfamiliar with the disease and experienced scientists. Clinical and public health aspects are addressed that cover acute and chronic disease, diagnosis, current treatment regimens and alternative drugs, and schistosomiasis control programs. A brief overview of genomics and proteomics is included that details recent advances in the field that will help scientists investigate the molecular biology of schistosomes. The reader will take away an appreciation for general aspects of schistosomiasis and research advances.

Keywords

Schistosomiasis Trematode Cercaria Snail Granuloma Intestinal Urogenital Male–female interplay Praziquantel 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author acknowledges support from NIH-NIAID (R01 AI115691-01, 1R01AI123434-01) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1172792). Electron micrographs (adult worms and cercariae) were provided by Drs. W.O. Granath and Jim Driver at the University of Montana Electron Microscopy Facility (www.emtrix.org) which is supported, in part, by grant P20GM103474 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health. We acknowledge Dr. Allen Cheever for our use of some of his pathology images throughout the manuscript and Dr. Tom Wynn for providing the drawing of Fig. 3.7.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Structural BiologyUniversity of Texas HealthSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineUniversity of Texas HealthSan AntonioUSA

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