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Diagnosis of Human Trematode Infections

  • J. Guillermo EstebanEmail author
  • Carla Muñoz-Antoli
  • Rafael Toledo
  • Lawrence R. Ash
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1154)

Abstract

Digenetic trematodes form a major group of human parasites, affecting a large number of humans, especially in endemic foci. Over 100 species have been reported infecting humans, including blood, lung, liver, and intestinal parasites. Traditionally, trematode infections have been diagnosed by parasitological methods based on the detection and the identification of eggs in different clinical samples. However, this is complicated due to the morphological similarity between eggs of different trematode species and other factors such as lack of sensitivity or ectopic locations of the parasites. Moreover, the problem is currently aggravated by migratory flows, international travel, international trade of foods, and changes in alimentary habits. Although efforts have been made for the development of immunological and molecular techniques, the detection of eggs through parasitological techniques remains as the gold standard for the diagnosis of trematodiases. In this chapter, we review the current status of knowledge on diagnostic techniques used when examining feces, urine, and sputum and also analyze the most relevant characteristics used to identify eggs with a quick key for the identification of eggs.

Keywords

Digenea Trematode Fluke Liver-, lung-, intestinal-, blood-trematodes Diagnosis Parasitological techniques Eggs 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the projects PROMETEO/2009/081 and PROMETEO2014-083 Fase II of Conselleria d’Educació, Generalitat Valenciana (Valencia, Spain); by project SN07.A126 of Cooperación al Desarrollo de la Universitat de València (Valencia, Spain); by projects BFU2013-41040 and BFU2016-75639-P of Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Madrid, Spain); and by projects No. RD12/0018/0013 (IV National Program of I+D+I 2008-2011) and RD16/0027/0023 (IV National Program of I+D+I 2017-2021) of the Red de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Tropicales-RICET, ISCIII-Subdirección General de Redes y Centros de Investigación Cooperativa of Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (Madrid, Spain).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Guillermo Esteban
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carla Muñoz-Antoli
    • 1
  • Rafael Toledo
    • 1
  • Lawrence R. Ash
    • 2
  1. 1.Área de Parasitología, Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica y Parasitología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Fielding School of Public HealthUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

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