Epidemiology of Trematode Infections: An Update

  • Jong-Yil ChaiEmail author
  • Bong-Kwang Jung
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1154)


Digenetic trematodes infecting humans are more than 91 species which belong to 46 genera all over the world. According to their habitat in definitive hosts, they are classified as blood flukes (Schistosoma japonicum. S. mekongi, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. intercalatum), liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, Metorchis conjunctus, M. bilis, M. orientalis, Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and D. hospes), lung flukes (Paragonimus westermani, P. heterotremus, P. skrjabini, P. miyazakii, P. kellicoti, P. mexicanus, P. africanus, and P. uterobilateralis), throat fluke (Clinostomum complanatum), pancreatic fluke (Eurytrema pancreaticum), and intestinal flukes (Metagonimus yokogawai, M. miyatai, M. takahashii, Heterophyes nocens, H. heterophyes, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus, Echinostoma revolutum, E. ilocanum, Isthmiophora hortensis, Echinochasmus japonicus, E. lilliputanus, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, A. sufrartyfex, A. oraoni, Fasciolopsis buski, Gymnophalloides seoi, Neodiplostomum seoulense, Caprimolgorchis molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, and Plagiorchis muris). The mode of transmission to humans includes contact with cercariae contaminated in water (schistosomes) and ingestion of raw or improperly cooked fish (liver and throat flukes, heterophyids, and echinostomes), snails (echinostomes and gymnophallids), amphibia, reptiles (neodiplostomes), aquatic vegetables (amphistomes), or insect larvae or adults (plagiorchiids, lecithodendriids, and pancreatic fluke). Praziquantel has been proved to be highly effective against most species of trematode infections except fascioliasis. Epidemiological surveys and detection of human infections are required for better understanding of the geographical distribution and endemicity of each trematode species.


Trematode Epidemiology Schistosome Liver fluke Lung fluke Throat fluke Pancreatic fluke Intestinal fluke Heterophyid Echinostome 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Parasitic DiseasesKorea Association of Health PromotionSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Seoul National University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

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