Fungal Diseases of Animals: Symptoms and Their Cure by Natural Products

  • Hilal Ahmad Ganaie
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


From ancient times people have been using medicinal plants for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This traditional use of plants is based upon pragmatic, timeless trial and error, correlating certain plants to the management and cure of particular diseases. The traditional way by which these plants were used can still be found in communities, passed down through natural history, and still prevails. MAPs possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. The use of medicinal plants has been increasing steadily with notable use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. With the discovery and extensive consumption of synthetic antibiotics, some resistant strains of microbes like multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) have emerged and are a threat to the successful treatment of different dreadful diseases associated with these microbes. Thus, it is a strong challenge to the scientist community to search for alternatives to curb these dreadful diseases.

The antibacterial activity of various plant extracts was tested against a set of bacterial strains, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The activity was determined by agar well diffusion method. The plant shows a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Methanolic extract was found to be the most active against all the bacterial strains tested and showed maximum sensitivity. The methanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa showed highest sensitivity in all the three concentrations with zones of inhibition of 12.6 ± 1.1, 15.3 ± 1.1 and 18.6 ± 1.7 at 40 μL, 70 μL and 100 μL (4, 7 and 10 mg of plant extract), respectively, against Gram-positive bacteria, Proteus vulgaris.


Agar well diffusion method Bacterial strains Kashmir Himalaya Medicinal and aromatic plants Multidrug-resistant strains Traditional medicine 



The author is highly thankful to Dr. Md. Niamat Ali, Associate Professor, and Prof. Bashir A. Ganie for their valuable suggestions during his research. The author is highly thankful to the Editor of the book for the opportunity to contribute a chapter.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilal Ahmad Ganaie
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre of Research for Development (CORD)University of KashmirSrinagarIndia

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