Advertisement

The Material Security and the Living Standard of Workers at the Chinese Eastern Railway (1922–1931)

  • M. A. KovalchukEmail author
  • S. Y. Yahimovich
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 139)

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of the material well-being of workers and employees of the Chinese Eastern Railway during the Soviet presence in the North Manchurian region up to the Japanese aggression (1922–1931). The uniqueness of the Chinese Eastern Railway was due to its leading role in the economic development of the whole Manchuria. As a result of the agreement between the USSR and China, since 1924 the entire Russian infrastructure of the Chinese Eastern Railway had become a joint Soviet-Chinese commercial enterprise. Citizens of both countries worked for the railway. The article draws attention to the indicators of wages on the railway in relation to the price situation in the area adjacent to the railway, which makes it possible to determine the standard of living of its personnel. The article indicates various wage levels – minimum, middle and maximal wages and salaries, the average wage level at the Chinese Eastern Railway, and its comparison with similar indicators at other railways of the Far East of the USSR. Social guarantees (privileges, compensations, bonuses etc.) contributed to the well-being of the personnel that allowed employees to save considerable amounts of money. The analysis of the real wages of various categories of workers of the Chinese Eastern Railway based on the ratio of nominal wages to the prices of basic commodities in Northern Manchuria led to the conclusion that the living standard of workers and employees of the railroad for local conditions remained quite high even during periods of decline in the transit activity of this railway.

Keywords

The Chinese Eastern Railway Wage Living standards Living wage 

References

  1. 1.
    Arutyunyan, Yu.V.: The indestructible friendship of the peoples of the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China as a solid foundation for peace throughout the world, p. 6, Moscow (1954)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ablova, N.E.: The CER and the Russian emigration in China: international and political aspects of history (first half of the 20th century), Moscow (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Avarin, V.Ya.: Imperialism in Manchuria, vol. 2, Moscow (1934)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andreev, G.I.: Revolutionary movement at the CER in 1917–1922, Novosibirsk (1983)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oleinikov, I.V.: Anti-crisis policies of the CER administration in the revolutionary period (1917–1920), Novosibirsk (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pisarevskaya, Ya.L.: Two types of Russia in Manchuria: social adaptation and re-emigration (1920s–early 1930s). New Hist. Bull. (2), 52–70 (2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tkachenko, G.I.: Soviet CER workers in the struggle to strengthen proletarian solidarity with the Chinese people (1924–1935), Moscow (1988)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sladkovsky, M.I.: The history of trade and economic relations between the USSR and China (1917–1974), pp. 51–59, Moscow (1977)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Documents of the USSR foreign policy, vol. 7, pp. 344, 461, 1 January–31 December 1924, Moscow (1963)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    The State Archive of the Khabarovsk Krai (further referred to as GAHK). F. P-458. Op. 1. D 15. L. 10Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    GAHK. F. P-458. Op. 1. D. 14. L. 70Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    GAHK. F. P-458. Op. 1. D. 22. L. 284Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    GAHK. F. P-1965. Op. 1. D. 1. L. 36, 62, 76, 271, 323Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    GAHK. F. R-830. Op. 1. D. 211. L. 22Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    GAHK. F. P-1965. Op. 1. D. 1. L. 82–86Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    The Russian State Archive of Social and Political History (further referred to as RGASPI). F. 17. Op. 31. D. 17. L. 23Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    GAHK. F. P-1965. Op. 1. D. 1. L. 54–56Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    The Russian State Military Archive (further referred to as RGVA). F. 33. Op. 6. D. 778. L. 469Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chzhichen, W.: The history of Russian emigration in Shanghai, pp. 277–278, Moscow (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    RGASPI. F. 613. Op. 3. D. 50. L. 10–11Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    The struggle of the working class for the restoration and development of industry in the Far Eastern region (1922–1925). Collection of documents and materials, Khabarovsk (1962)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Correspondence of I.V. Stalin and G.V. Chicherin with the plenipotentiary representative of the USSR in China Karakhan: documents, August 1923–1926, p. 78, Moscow (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    The State Archive of the Russian Federation (further referred to as GARF). F. P-6599. Op. 1. D. 8. L. 237Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    GAHK. F. P-1965. Op. 1. D. 8. L. 333–340Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Theory and History of State and LawFar Eastern State Transport UniversityKhabarovskRussia
  2. 2.Department of Social and Humanitarian and Economic DisciplinesFar Eastern Legal Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of RussiaKhabarovskRussia

Personalised recommendations