Bilingualism and Its Influence on Ethnic Media Use: A Case of Buryats

  • S. K. Malkhanova
  • H. J. Kim
  • Y. V. AgranatEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 139)


This paper purports to explore the effect of bilingualism on the use of ethnic media in the republic of Buryatia, where both Russian and Buryat are official languages and have equal rights. To answer the research questions, a survey was administrated on 156 Buryats residing in the republic of Buryatia in the Russian Federation. Results showed that minority language (Buryat) and majority language (Russian) are in supplementary and complementary relationships. Minority language performs social and emotional functions mostly in private sphere, while majority language is more useful in public sphere. Ethnic minority language media, due to the lack of supply and institutional incompleteness, seem limited only to complementary roles. Yet it is still an important tool in maintaining and promoting cultural diversity.


Bilingualism Ethnic language Ethnic media Buryat Russia 


  1. Amogolonova, D.D., Skrynnikova, T.D.: Buryat identity in the period of transition in Russia. In: Conference Paper. Identity and social Change in Russia. The Harriman Institute and Information Scholarship Education Center (2006)Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, D.G.: Identity and Ecology in Arctic Siberia: The number One Reindeer Brigade. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2006)Google Scholar
  3. Baker, C.: Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 4th edn. Multilingual Matters, Clevedon (2006)Google Scholar
  4. Baker, C.: Attitudes and Language. Multilingual Matters, Clevedon (1992)Google Scholar
  5. Bourhis, R.Y., Landry, R.: Group vitality, cultural autonomy and the wellness of language minorities. In: Bourhis, R.Y. (ed.) The Vitality of the English-Speaking Communities of Quebec: From Community Decline to Revival. CEETUM, Université de Montréal, Montreal (2008)Google Scholar
  6. Chiswick, B.R., Miller, P.W.: The Economics of Language: International Analysis. Routledge, London (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cormack, M.: Minority language media in Western Europe: preliminary considerations. Eur. J. Commun. 13(1), 33–52 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cormack, M.: The media and language maintenance. In: Cormack, M., Hourigan, N. (eds.) Minority Language Media: Concepts, Critiques and Case Studies, pp. 52–69. Multilingual Matters, Clevedon (2007)Google Scholar
  9. Dyrkheeva, G.: Factors in national-language development: the Buryat example. Conference Paper. SIL International, Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development-Mahidol University, and UNESCO Bangkok (2003)Google Scholar
  10. Forsyth, J.: A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia’s Asian Colony 1581-1990. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1992)Google Scholar
  11. Fishman, J.A.: From theory to practice (and vice versa): review, reconsideration and reiteration. In: Fishman, J.A. (ed.) Can Threatened Languages Be Saved? Reversing Language Shift, Revisited: A 21st Century Perspective, pp. 451–483. Multilingual Matters, Clevedon (2001)Google Scholar
  12. Georgiou, M.: Mapping minorities and their media: the national context – The UK. London School of Economics (2001)Google Scholar
  13. Gorenburg, D.: Soviet Nationalities Policy and Assimilation. Forthcoming in Rebounding Identities: The Politics of Identity in Russia and Ukraine (Cambridge University Press) edited by Blair Ruble, Nancy Popson and Dominique Arel. Harvard University (2006)Google Scholar
  14. Graber, K.: The shifting roles of minority language news media in the Buryat territories of Russia. Ph.D. dissertation (2011)Google Scholar
  15. Grant, B.: In the House of Soviet Culture: A Century of Perestroikas. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1995)Google Scholar
  16. Grosjean, F.: Life with Two Languages. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1982)Google Scholar
  17. Grosjean, F.: The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker-hearer. J. Multiling. Multicult. Dev. 6, 467–477 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hirsch, F.: Toward and empire of nations: border making and the formation of the soviet national identities. Russ. Rev. 59, 201–226 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hakuta, K., D’Andrea, D.: Some properties of bilingual maintenance and loss in Mexican background high school students. Appl. Linguist. 13(1), 72–99 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khilkhanova, E.: Language and ethnic identity of minorities in Post-Soviet Russia: the Buryat case of study. J. Eurasian Res. 3, 85–100 (2004)Google Scholar
  21. Moring, T.: A comparative study of media, media use and ethnolinguistic vitality in bilingual communities. ESUKA – JEFUL 2011 2(1), 283–301 (2011)Google Scholar
  22. Moring, T.: Media markets and minority languages in the digital age. J. Ethnopolitics Minor. Issues Eur. 12(4), 34–53 (2014)Google Scholar
  23. Pearson, B.Z.: Social factors in childhood bilingualism in the United States. Appl. Phycholinguistics 28, 399–410 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Slezkine, Y.: Arctic Minors: Russia and the Small Peoples of the North. Cornell University Press, Ithaca (1994)Google Scholar
  25. Stevens, G.: The social and demographic context of language use in the United States. Am. Sociol. Rev. 57, 171–185 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Van Tubergen, F., Kalmijn, M.: Language proficiency and usage among immigrants in The Netherlands: incentives or opportunities. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 25(2), 169–182 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Carleton UniversityOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Kwangwoon UniversityNowonguKorea
  3. 3.Far Eastern State Transport UniversityKhabarovskRussia

Personalised recommendations