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The Energy Transition in Morocco

  • A. Laaroussi
  • A. Bouayad
Chapter
Part of the Innovative Renewable Energy book series (INREE)

Abstract

The energy sector is a vital element, its performance conditions that of the rest of the economy and the well-being of society. Indeed, it is the key factor of economic and social development. The supply of energy (all forms combined) in the best conditions (continuity, quality, price) is a driver of productivity and competitiveness of companies and social balance. On the other hand, the energy deficit and the fragility of the sector will have an opposite impact. The main characteristic of energy is that it is both an input and an output. The availability of primary energy is a central factor in providing final energy cheaply and in sufficient quantities. Morocco’s energy deficit has pushed it to adopt an energy plan, the stated objectives of which are the minimization of dependence on conventional energy, the reduction of the energy bill, and the budget deficit, without forgetting the elimination of the trade deficit. Indeed, since political independence, the country’s energy dependence has steadily increased, creating a climate of uncertainty and insecurity about the future evolution of the economy and society. The development model based mainly on conventional energies has reached saturation, generating very low growth rates and creating social and regional disparities. The energy plan adopted in recent years by the Moroccan authorities is a serious alternative to overcome the problems. The energy sector in Morocco is dominated by fossil fuels, almost entirely imported, which cover 88.5% of the country’s primary energy consumption in 2014 (oil 61.9%, coal 21.3%, gas 5.3%) renewable energies contribute 8.8% and electricity imports 2.7% (International Association of Hydropower (IAH). State of hydropower report, 2016). The energy plan basically consists of a recomposition of the weighting of energy sources; on the horizon, renewable energies must be half of the primary energy sources. Morocco has adopted in 2016 a national strategy for sustainable development (NSSD) which sets ambitious targets: 5000 MW of solar in 2030; transition from the wind capacity of 280 MW in 2010 to 2000 MW in 2020, or 14% of total electrical capacity; and development of waste utilization (International Association of Hydropower (IAH). State of hydropower report, 2016). By 2030, Morocco has set a program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This strategy is available in the various sectors of renewable energies: wind, solar, and hydroelectric. Morocco imports 95% of the energy consumed, and hydrocarbon production in the kingdom is almost zero. This situation led it to embark on a program of development of renewable energies and energy diversification in order to no longer depend essentially on fossil fuels (Report of Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment (MEMWE), 2014). The purpose of this article is to present the energy transition in Morocco by highlighting the state of play of the energy sector with related costs (financial, economic, social, regional, and environmental), with a synthetic presentation of the new orientation based on renewable energies.

Keywords

Energetic transition Renewable energy Energy costs Moroccan strategy 

References

  1. 1.
    Report of Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment (MEMWE) (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) (2010). www.finances.gov.ma
  3. 3.
    Report of the Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment (2015)Google Scholar
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    MEMWE (2015) The new Moroccan energy model: real investment opportunities. LisbonGoogle Scholar
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    Energy Investment Company (EIC) (2015). www.siem.ma
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    National Agency for the development of renewable energies and the energy efficiency (ADREEE) 2014Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Laaroussi
    • 1
  • A. Bouayad
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et SocialesUniversité Moulay IsmaïlMeknèsMorocco

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