• Jacqueline ClavelEmail author
  • Brigitte Lacour
  • Paula Rios


Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial tumor in children. Based on the French 2000–2013 data, the annual age-standardized incidence rate is around 14 cases per million of children aged 0–14 years and is reported lower in low-income countries. Neuroblastomas are mostly diagnosed before the age of 5 years (85%), and 40% occur in infancy. The incidence has remained stable since 2000 in France. The overall survival rates in France are 92% at 1 year and 75% at 5 years after diagnosis, which is similar to other developed countries but much higher than reported in low-income countries. It varies strongly with age, with best figures among infants.

Because neuroblastoma is rare, literature on etiology is limited and studies often lack power. The characteristics of the cells and the early onset suggest a role of genetic factors and perinatal exposures. Positive associations have been observed with congenital malformations, high birth weight, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Self-reported exposure to household pesticides during pregnancy was also associated with increased risk of neuroblastoma in some studies. By contrast, inverse associations are suggested between neuroblastoma and vitamin/folic acid supplementation before pregnancy and breastfeeding.


Neuroblastoma Epidemiology Incidence Survival Risk factors Etiology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline Clavel
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Brigitte Lacour
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Paula Rios
    • 1
  1. 1.CRESS, UMRS1153, INSERMUniversité Paris-DescartesParisFrance
  2. 2.National Registry of Childhood CancersAPHP Hôpital Paul BrousseVillejuifFrance
  3. 3.CHU de NancyVandoeuvre-lès-NancyFrance

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