Learning and Memory

  • Stavroula I. Bargiota
  • Vasilis P. Bozikas
  • Ioannis Nimatoudis


Learning and memory are closely related fundamental higher brain processes that allow individuals to adapt to the environment, create, and widen not only their personal history but also the population culture. Learning helps people to enquire and encode information making them able to adopt new behaviors. Learning is a whole lifetime process that intervenes in almost all occasions of people’s social living. Memory is connected with learning. The initial information is encoded, preserved over time, and used when any need occurs. Any damage in the encoding, the storage, and the retrieval of the information disturbs the process of memory. The application of the underlying biological mechanisms to the observation of the behavior is the aim of the field of psychobiology. Describing this aspect of memory and learning functions can be a useful tool for every scientist, leading to a deeper and more complete understanding of daily tasks and events. Conclusions should be derived from carefully investigating behaviors, taking under consideration the previous findings in the history of science. Actually, forgetting past lessons and experiences can be nothing more than a memory disorder.


Learning Memory Psychobiology Disorders Conditioning Mechanisms 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stavroula I. Bargiota
    • 1
  • Vasilis P. Bozikas
    • 1
  • Ioannis Nimatoudis
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.2nd Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health SciencesAristotle University of Thessaloniki, Psychiatric Hospital of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.3rd Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health SciencesAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.University Hospital AHEPAThessalonikiGreece

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