Recurrent Nighttime Awakening Due to Shortness of Breath

  • Alireza ShafieiEmail author

Practical Points

  • Patients who are symptomatic on alternative treatments of asthma, could benefit from the best preferred treatment before stepping up, according to standard therapy.

  • Epinephrine is lifesaving in anaphylaxis. It should be injected as soon as possible.

  • Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy is highly effective, more than 95%, in decreasing the risk for severe anaphylaxis.


Asthma Epinephrine Anaphylaxis 


  1. 1.
    National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US). 2007.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Bahrami Hospital, School of MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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