Advertisement

Sneezing and Rhinorrhea

  • Maryam Rahmani
Chapter

Practical Points

  • Intranasal corticosteroids are first line and most effective single maintenance therapy for allergic rhinitis

  • Use of topical decongestants should be limited to a maximum of 7 days due to a risk of rebound rhinitis

  • Skin prick testing and intradermal methods are the most sensitive and cost effective modalities IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis

  • Patients with a high risk for anaphylaxis or those with recent anaphylactic attack within the last 4 weeks should not undergo skin prick or intradermal allergen testing

  • Atopic dermatitis is not a contraindication for skin prick testing and does not affect test results if performed on unaffected areas

Keywords

Intranasal corticosteroids Skin prick test Anaphylaxis Allergic rhinitis Atopic dermatitis 

References

  1. 1.
    Fokkens WJ, Lund VJ, Mullol J, Bachert C, Alobid I, Baroody F, Cohen N, Cervin A, Douglas R, Gevaert P, Georgalas C, Goossens H, Harvey R, Hellings P, Hopkins C, Jones N, Joos G, Kalogjera L, Kern B, Kowalski M, Price D, Riechelmann H, Schlosser R, Senior B, Thomas M, Toskala E, Voegels R, Wang de Y, Wormald PJ. EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists. Rhinology. 2012;50(1):1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brozek JL, Bousquet J, Agache I, Agarwal A, Bachert C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Brignardello-Petersen R, Canonica GW, Casale T, Chavannes NH, Correia de Sousa J, Cruz AA, Cuello-Garcia CA, Demoly P, Dykewicz M, Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta I, Florez ID, Fokkens W, Fonseca J, Hellings PW, Klimek L, Kowalski S, Kuna P, Laisaar KT, Larenas-Linnemann DE, Lodrup Carlsen KC, Manning PJ, Meltzer E, Mullol J, Muraro A, O’Hehir R, Ohta K, Panzner P, Papadopoulos N, Park HS, Passalacqua G, Pawankar R, Price D, Riva JJ, Roldan Y, Ryan D, Sadeghirad B, Samolinski B, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Sheikh A, Togias A, Valero A, Valiulis A, Valovirta E, Ventresca M, Wallace D, Waserman S, Wickman M, Wiercioch W, Yepes-Nunez JJ, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Zidarn M, Zuberbier T, Schunemann HJ. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines-2016 revision. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;140(4):950–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Skoner DP, Rachelefsky GS, Meltzer EO, Chervinsky P, Morris RM, Seltzer JM, Storms WW, Wood RA. Detection of growth suppression in children during treatment with intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate. Pediatrics. 2000;105(2):E23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Rahmani
    • 1
  1. 1.Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations