Final Considerations

  • Max A. Freund
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 408)


In this chapter, we relate the different formal logical systems characterized in this work to nominalist and realist approaches to sortals. We also discuss the use of the absolute identity sign and the absolute quantifiers in the formal semantics. We argue that the way those two logical expressions occur in the semantic clauses cannot be necessarily interpreted as a reduction, by the formal semantics, of sortal identity and first-order sortal quantification.


Set-theoretic semantics Conceptualism Logic of sortals Nominalism Realism 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Max A. Freund
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor of Logic and Philosophy, Graduate Program in PhilosophyUniversity of Costa RicaSan JoséCosta Rica

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