An Extensional Logic for Sortals

  • Max A. Freund
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 408)


An extensional formal language for sortals, its formal semantics as well as a formal system for the language are characterized. The system is shown to be sound and complete relative to the semantics. The restriction-relation among sortal concepts is introduced and discussed in connection with other related important concepts, such as those of a phase sortal, a substance sortal and an ultimate sortal. A formal representation of the relation is provided. The view that every individual must fall under a sortal is considered and formalized as well. The formalizations in question are extensions of the conceptual framework provided by the extensional logic of sortals.


Extensional logic for sortals Formal semantics for sortals Ultimate sortal Phase sortal 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Max A. Freund
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor of Logic and Philosophy, Graduate Program in PhilosophyUniversity of Costa RicaSan JoséCosta Rica

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