Advertisement

India: van Rheede, Caius and Others

  • Eng Soon Teoh
Chapter

Abstract

Orchids have been employed as aphrodisiac, tonic or medicine in India for thousands of years. Their usage continues today. Knowledge of such usage was revealed to the West by the monumental plication of van Rheede who described the economic or botanically interesting plants of Malabar in 1703, and by Father Caius who wrote on medicinal orchids during the 1930s. However, their publications did not mention the use of orchids as aphrodisiac. Ethnobotanical studies on orchids continued after Indian independence and many studies drew attention to the use of orchids as aphrodisiac. Four orchids are included in Asthavarga, an aphrodisia preparation and tonic employed in Ayurveda. Some orchids with tubers (Eulophia and Dactylorhiza species) are also prized as aphrodisiacs and they can fetch extremely high prices in herbal markets. Given the possibility that a Flickingeria (Dendrobium) species might be the mythical Sangeevani (the Himalayan herb which restored life to mortally wounded Lakshmana in the Ramayana), a hundred truckloads of the orchid was imported from Nepal to prepare an aphrodisiac. Going beyond aphrodisiacs, 112 orchids with medicinal usage have been identified in India.

References

  1. Abraham A, Vatsala P (1981) Introduction to orchids, with illustrations and descriptions of 150 South Indian orchids. TPGRI, TrivandrumGoogle Scholar
  2. Akarsh (2004) Newsletter of ENVIS NODE on Indian medicinal plants 1(2): June 2004Google Scholar
  3. Arditti J, Flick BH, Ehmann A, Fisch MH (1975) Orchid phytoalexins. Part 2. Isolation and characterization of possible sterol companions. Am J Bot 62:738–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balasubramaniam P, Prasad SN (1996) Ethnobotany and conservation of medicinal plants by Irulas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. In: Jain SK (ed) Ethnobiology in human welfare. Deep Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  5. Behera D, Rath CC, Mohapatra U (2013) Medicinal orchids in India and their conservation: a review. Floricult Ornament Biotechnol 7:53–59Google Scholar
  6. Bose TK, Bhattacharjee SK (1980) Orchids of India. Naya Prokash, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  7. Caius JF (1936) The medicinal and poisonous orchids of India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 38(4):791–799Google Scholar
  8. Chang DCN (2007) The screening of orchid fungi (OMF) and the applications. In: Chen WH, Chen HH (eds) Orchid biotechnology. World Scientific, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  9. Chase MW, Cameron KM, Freudenstein JV et al (2015) An updated classification of Orchidaceae. Bot J Linn Soc 177(2):151–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen XQ, Wood JJ (2009) Pholidota Lindley ex Hooker, Exot. Fl. 12 ad t. 138. 1825. In: Chen XQ, Liu ZJ, Zhu GH et al (eds) Flora of China—Orchidaceae. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  11. Chopra RN (1933) The indigenous drugs of India. The Art Press, Calcutta. Republished as Chopra’s Indigenous Plants of India, 2nd ed. Academic Publishers (1986), KolkataGoogle Scholar
  12. Chowlu K, Mahar KS, Das AK (2017) Ethnobotanical studies on orchids among Kamti community of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 8(1):89–93Google Scholar
  13. Comber JB (2001) Orchids of Sumatra. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota KinabaluGoogle Scholar
  14. Dagar HS, Dagar JC (2003) Plants used in ethnomedicine by the Nicobarese of Islands in Bay of Bengal, India. In: Singh V, Jain AP (eds) Ethnoboany and medicinal plants of India and Nepal. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 773–778Google Scholar
  15. Dash PK, Sahoo S, Bal S (2008) Ethnobotanical studies on orchids of Niyamgiri Hill Ranges, Orissa, India. Ethnobot Leaflets 12:70–78Google Scholar
  16. Deb CR, Imchen T (2008) Orchid diversity of Nagaland. Scichem Publishing House, UdaipurGoogle Scholar
  17. Deorani SC, Sharma GD (2007) Medicinal plants of Nagaland. Bishan Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, New Delhi, p 291 (quoted by Nongdam 2014)Google Scholar
  18. Duggal SC (1972) Orchids in human affairs (A review). Pharm Biol 11(2):1727–1734Google Scholar
  19. Dutt UC (1900) The material medica of the Hindus. Rev ed. D Mukerjee, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  20. Dymock W, Warden CJH, Hooper D (1893) A history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India. Education Soc. Press, BombayGoogle Scholar
  21. Ganesan S, Kesavan L (2003) Ethnomedicinal plants used by the ethnic group Valaiyans of Vellimalai Hills (Reserve Forest), Tamil Nadu, India. In: Singh V, Jain AP (eds) Ethnobotany and medicinal plants of India and Nepal. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 754–760Google Scholar
  22. Gupta AK, Tandon N (2004) Reviews on Indian medicinal plants, vol 3(Are-Azi). Indian Council of Medical Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  23. Hu XM, Zhang WK, Zhu QZ et al (2000) Zhonghua Bencao, vol 8. Shanghai Science and Technology Publication, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  24. Jalal JS, Kumar P, Tewari L, Pangtey YPS (2010) Orchids: uses in traditional medicine in India. In: National seminar on medicinal plants of Himalayas. Regional Res Institute Himalayan Flora, TariketGoogle Scholar
  25. Jayaweera DMA (1981) A revised handbook of the flora of Ceylon, vol II. A.A. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  26. Jin H, Xu ZX, Chen JH, Han SF, Ge S, Luo YB (2009) Interaction between tissue cultured seedlings of Dendrobium officinale and mycorrhizal fungus (Epulorrhiza sp.) during symbiotic culture. Chin J Plant Ecol 33(3):433–441Google Scholar
  27. Jonathan KH, Raju AJS (2005) Terrestrial and epiphytic orchids of Eastern Ghats. EPTRI-ENVIS Newsl 11(3):2–4Google Scholar
  28. Khajuria AK, Kumar G, Bisht NS (2017) Diversity with ethnomedicinal notes on orchids: a case study of Nagdev range, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. J Med Plant Stud 5(1):171–174Google Scholar
  29. Kumar V (2003) Wild edible plants of Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state, India. In: Singh V, Jain AP (eds) Ethnobotany and medicinal plants of India, vol 1. Scientific Publications, JodhpurGoogle Scholar
  30. Lawler LJ (1984) Ethnobotany of the Orchidaceae. In: Arditti J (ed) Orchid Biology Reviews & Perspectives, vol 3. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  31. Luo YB (2016) The development of traditional Chinese medicinal Dendrobium business. Abstracts, The Third Shanghai Chenshan International Conference, 22–23rd April, 2016. Shanghai: Shenshan Plant Science Research Centre, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Chenshan Botanaical Gardens, 3888 Chenhua Road, Songjiang District, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  32. Majumder PL, Sarkar AK (1982) Imbricatin, a new modified 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivative of the orchid Pholidota imbricata. Indian J Chem 21B:829–831Google Scholar
  33. Manandhar NP, Manandhar S (2002) Plants and people of Nepal. Timber Press, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  34. Manilal KS (2003) Hendrik van Rheede’s Hortus Malabaricus with annotations and modern botanical nomenclature, vol 11 & 12. University of Kerala, ThiruvananthapuramGoogle Scholar
  35. Maridass M, Ramesh U (2010) Investigation of phytochemical constituents from Eulophia enpidendraea. Int J Biol Tech 1(1):1–7Google Scholar
  36. Matthew KM (1995) An excursion flora of Central Tamilnadu, India. A.A. Balkaema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  37. Medhi RP, Chakrabarti S (2009) Traditional knowledge of NE people on conservation of wild orchids. Indian J Tradit Knowl 8(1):11–16Google Scholar
  38. Mohanty JP, Pal P, Barma AD (2015) An overview on orchids. UJPSR 1(1):45–50Google Scholar
  39. Musharof Hossain M (2009) Traditional therapeutic uses of some indigenous orchids of Bangladesh. Med Aromat Plant Sci Biotechnol 3:100–106Google Scholar
  40. Nadkarni AK (1954) Dr. K.M. Nadkarni’s Indian Materia Medica, vol 2, 3rd edn. Popular Book Depot, BombayGoogle Scholar
  41. Nautiyal S, Saxena KG, Rao KS, Maikhuri RK (2003) Transhumant pastoralism in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India: a case study in the buffer zone. Mt Res Dev 23(3):255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nongdam P (2014) Ethno-medicinal uses of some orchids of Nagaland, Northeast India. Res J Med Plant 8:126–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Panda AK, Debasis Mandal D (2013) The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim. Anc Sci Life 33(2):92–96Google Scholar
  44. Pandey NK, Joshi GC, Mudaiya RK et al (2003) Management and conservation of medicinal orchids of Kumaon and Garhwal Himalaya. J Econ Taxon Bot 27(1):114–116Google Scholar
  45. Pant B (2011) Medicinal orchids of Nepal and their conservation by in-vitro technique. In: Proceedings of the 20th World Orchid Congress, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  46. Pant B, Raskoti BB (2013) Medicinal orchids of Nepal. Himalayan Map House, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  47. Puri HS (1970) Vegetable aphrodisiacs of India. Q J Crude Drugs Res 11:1742–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rajendran A, Rao NR, Kumar KR, Henry AN (1997) Some medicinal orchids of Southern India. Anc Sci Life 17(1):10–14Google Scholar
  49. Rao AN (2004) Medicinal orchid wealth of Arunachal Pradesh. Newsl ENVIS Node Indian Med Plants 1(2):1–5Google Scholar
  50. Rao TA (2007) Ethnobotanical data on wild orchids of medicinal value as practiced by tribals at Kudremukh National Park in Karnataka. Orchid Newsl 2(2):1–7Google Scholar
  51. Rao TA, Sridhar S (2007) Wild orchids in Karnataka. A pictorial compendium. Institute of Natural Resources Conservation, Education, Research and Training (INCERT), BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  52. Reddy CH, Nagesh K, Reddy KN, Vatsavaya SR (2003) Plants used in ethnoveterinary practices by gonds of Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, India. In: Singh V, Jain AP (eds) Ethnoboany and medicinal plants of India and Nepal. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 679–685Google Scholar
  53. Reddy KN, Subharaju GV, Reddy CS, Raju VS (2005) Ethnobotany of certain orchids of Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh. EPTRI-ENVIS Newsl 11(3):5–9Google Scholar
  54. Ridley HN (1906) Malay drugs. Agric Bull Straits Settlements FMS 5:245–254Google Scholar
  55. Santapau H, Kapadia Z (1966) The orchids of Bombay. Govt. of India Press, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  56. Seidenfaden G (1999) 149. Orchidaceae. In: Matthew KM (ed) The flora of the Palni Hills, South India, Part 3. The Rapinat Herbarium. St. Joseph’s College, TiruchirapalliGoogle Scholar
  57. Shanavaskhan AE, Sivadasan M, Alfarhan AH, Thomas J (2012) Ethnomedical aspects of angiospermic epiphytes and parasites of Kerala, India. Indian J Tradit Knowl 11(2):250–258Google Scholar
  58. Shriram V, Kumar V, Kishor PBK et al (2010) Cytotoxic activity of 9.10-dihydromethoxyphenanthrene-1,7-diol from Eulophia nuda against human cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 128(1):251–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Singh A, Duggal S (2009) Medicinal orchids: an overview. Ethnobot Leaf 13:351–363Google Scholar
  60. Sivakumar A, Subramanian MS, Karunakaran M, Burkanudeen A (2003) Ethnobotany of Poliyars of Anaimalai Hills, Tamil Nadu. In: Singh V, Jain AP (eds) Ethnoboany and medicinal plants of India and Nepal. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 679–685Google Scholar
  61. Sivakumar A, Murugesan M (2005) Ethnobotanical studies of wild edible plants used by tribals of Anaimalai Hills, the Western Ghats. Anc Sci Life 25(2):68–73Google Scholar
  62. Subramani SDP, Goraya GS (2003) Some folklore medicinal plants of Kolli Hills. Record of a Natti Vaidyas Sammelan Ibid: 665–669Google Scholar
  63. Teoh ES (2011) Medicinal orchids: the issue of conservation. Malayan Orchid Rev 45:105–113Google Scholar
  64. Teoh ES (2016) Medicinal orchids of Asia. Springer International, SwitzerlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Trivedi VP, Dixit RS, Lal VK (1980) Orchids in the drug markets of Bareilly, Kanpur and nearby districts. Nagarjun (Calcutta) 23(8):157–163Google Scholar
  66. Tsering J, Tam N, Tng H et al (2017) Medicinal orchids of Arunachal Pradesh: a review. Bull Arunachal Forest Res 32(1&2):1–16Google Scholar
  67. Uphof JC Th (1968) Dictionary of economic plants. Verlag von J. Cramer, LehreGoogle Scholar
  68. Van Rheede HA (1703) Hortus Indicus Malabaricus, vol 11 & 12. Joannis van Someran, Haeredum Johannis van Dyck, Henrici & Viduae Theodori Bom, AmstelaedamiGoogle Scholar
  69. Van Steenis CGGJ (ed) (1948) Flora Malesiana, vol 4, part 1. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V.H, BataviaGoogle Scholar
  70. Vanlairuati MT, Pradhan S, Das SK (2012) Habitat studies from conservation of medicinal orchids of Mizoram. In: Ghosh SN (ed) Proceedings of the international symposium on minor fruits and medicinal plants for health and ecological security (ISMF & MP), West Bengal, 19–22 Dec 2011. Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswandyalaya, Mohanpur, pp 120–123Google Scholar
  71. Wood JJ, Beaman TE, Lamb A et al (2011) The orchids of Mount Kinabalu, vol 1. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota KinabaluGoogle Scholar
  72. Yoganarasimhan SN, Chelladurai V (2000) Medicinal plants of India vol. 2 – Tamil Nadu. Regional Research Institute, BangaloreGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eng Soon Teoh
    • 1
  1. 1.SingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations