Advertisement

Rolling Circle Replication and Transcription Processes in Geminiviruses

  • Nivedita Sharma
  • Rajrani Ruhel
Chapter

Abstract

Geminivirus causes a tremendous loss in plant yield and the infection occurs in terminally differentiated plant cells wherein in order to complete its life cycle, the host gene expression is induced and also the host cell cycle machinery is modulated (Nagar et al. The Plant Cell 7:705–719, 1995; Hanley-Bowdoin et al. Nat Rev Microbiol 11:777–788, 2013). The small-sized (~2.7 kb) genome of geminivirus utilizes a bidirectional mode of transcription and has overlapping genes in different frames for its efficient usage. Functional studies on various mutants of the entire open reading frames of Tomato golden mosaic virus concluded that the Rep is the only viral protein absolutely necessary for its replication. In addition, it is also involved in the process of transcription and regulates the expression of certain viral genes. The main purpose of this chapter is to provide brief insights into the replication and transcription pathway of geminivirus.

Keywords

Geminivirus Replication Transcription ORF 

References

  1. Accotto GP, Donson J, Mullineaux PM (1989) Mapping of Digitaria streak virus transcripts reveals different RNA species from the same transcription unit. EMBO J 8(4):1033–1039PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ach RA, Durfee T, Miller AB et al (1997) RRB1 and RRB2 encode maize retinoblastoma-related proteins that interact with a plant D-type Cyclin and Geminivirus replication protein. Mol Cell Biol 17(9):5077–5086PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Alberter B, Rezaian MA, Jeske H (2005) Replicative intermediates of tomato leaf curl virus and its satellite DNAs. Virology 331(2):441–448PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Argüello-Astorga G, Herrera-Estrella GL, Bustamante RR (1994) Experimental and theoretical definition of Geminivirus origin of replication. Plant Mol Biol 26:553–556PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Arguello-Astorga G, Lopez-Ochoa GL, Kong LJ et al (2004) A novel motif in Geminivirus replication proteins interacts with the plant retinoblastoma-related protein. J Virol 78(9):4817–4826PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashraf MA, Shahid AA, Rao AQ, Bajwa KS et al (2014) Functional characterization of a bidirectional plant promoter from cotton leaf curl Burewala virus using an agrobacterium-mediated transient assay. Viruses 6(1):223–242PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagewadi B, Shoajiang C, Sunil KL et al (2004) PCNA interacts with Indian Mung bean yellow mosaic virus rep and Downregulates rep activity. J Virol 78(21):11890–11903PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Borah BK, Zarreen F, Baruah G, Dasgupta I (2016) Insights into the control of Geminiviral promoters. Virology 495:101–111PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Branch AD, Benenfeld BJ, Robertson HD (1988) Evidence for a single rolling circle in the replication of potato spindle tuber Viroid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85(23):9128–9132PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Breathnach R, Chambon P (1981) Organization and expression of Eucaryotic Split genes coding for proteins. Annu Rev Biochem 50:349–386PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Castillo AG, Colline D, Deret S et al (2003) Dual interaction of plant PCNA with Geminivirus replication accessory protein (REn) and viral replication protein (rep). Virology 312(2):381–394PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Castillo AG, Kong LJ, Hanley-Bowdoin L, Bejarano ER (2004) Interaction between a Geminivirus replication protein and the plant Sumoylation system. J Virol 78(6):2758–2769PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Chatterji A, Chatterji U, Beachy RN, Fauquet CM (2000) Sequence parameters that determine specificity of binding of the replication-associated protein to its cognate site in two strains of tomato leaf curl virus-New Delhi. Virology 273(2):341–350PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Choudhury NR, Malik PS, Singh DK et al (2006) The Oligomeric rep protein of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a likely Replicative Helicase. Nucleic Acids Res 34(21):6362–6377PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Clerot D, Bernardi F (2006) DNA Helicase activity is associated with the replication initiator protein rep of tomato yellow leaf curl Geminivirus. J Virol 80(22):11322–11330PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Dekker EL, Woolston CJ, Xue Y et al (1991) Transcript mapping reveals different expression strategies for the Bicistronic RNAs of the Geminivirus wheat dwarf virus. Nucleic Acids Res 19(15):4075–4081PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Desbiez C, David C, Mettouchi A, Laufs J, Gronenborn B (1995) Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Geminivirus has an ATPase activity required for viral DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(12):5640–5644PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Donson J, Morris-Krsinich BA, Mullineaux PM et al (1984) A putative primer for second-Strand DNA synthesis of maize streak virus is Virion-associated. EMBO J 3(13):3069–3073PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Eagle PA, Hanley-Bowdoin L (1997) Cis elements that contribute to Geminivirus transcriptional regulation and the efficiency of DNA replication. J Virol 71(9):6947–6955PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Eagle PA, Orozco BM, Hanley-Bowdoin L (1994) A DNA sequence required for Geminivirus replication also mediates transcriptional regulation. Plant Cell 6(8):1157–1170PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Eini O, Behjatnia SAA, Dogra S et al (2009) Identification of sequence elements regulating promoter activity and replication of a Monopartite Begomovirus-associated DNA β satellite. J Gen Virol 90(1):253–260PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Fenoll C, Black DM, Howell SH (1988) The Intergenic region of maize streak virus contains promoter elements involved in rightward transcription of the viral genome. EMBO J 7(6):1589–1596PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Fontes EP, Luckow VA, Hanley-Bowdoin L (1992) A Geminivirus replication protein is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Plant Cell 4(5):597–608PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Frey PM, Scharer-Hernandez NG, Futterer J et al (2001) Simultaneous analysis of the bidirectional African cassava mosaic virus pro- Moter activity using two different Luciferase genes. Virus Genes 185(22):596–604Google Scholar
  25. Frischmuth S, Frischmuth T, Jeske H (1991) Transcript mapping of Abutilon mosaic virus, a Geminivirus. Virology 185(2):596–604PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. George B, Ruhel R, Mazumder M et al (2014) Mutational analysis of the Helicase domain of a replication initiator protein reveals critical roles of Lys 272 of the B’ motif and Lys 289 of the β-hairpin loop in Geminivirus replication. J Gen Virol 95(PART 7):1591–1602PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Gopal P, Kumar PP, Sinilal B et al (2007) Differential roles of C4 and C1 in mediating suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing: evidence for Transactivation by the C2 of Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, a Monopartite Begomovirus. Virus Res 123(1):9–18PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Gorbalenya AE, Koonin EV (1993) Helicases: amino acid sequence comparisons and structure-function relationships. Curr Opin Struct Biol 3(3):419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Groning BR, Hayes RJ, Buck KW (1994) Simultaneous regulation of tomato Golden mosaic virus coat protein and AL1 gene expression: expression of the AL4 gene may contribute to suppression of the AL1 gene. J Gen Virol 75(4):721–726PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Gros MF, Riele HT, Ehrlich SD (1987) Rolling circle replication of single-stranded DNA plasmid pC194. EMBO J 6(12):3863–3869PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Guerra-Peraza O, Kirk D, Seltzer V et al (2005) Coat proteins of Rice Tungro bacilliform virus and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus contain multiple nuclear-localization signals and interact with Importin α. J Gen Virol 86(6):1815–1826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Elmer JS, Rogers SG (1988) Transient expression of Heterologous RNAs using tomato Golden mosaic virus. Nucleic Acids Res 16(22):10511–10528PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Elmer LJS, Rogers SG (1989) Functional expression of the leftward open Reading frames of the a component of tomato Golden mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco plants. Plant Cell 1(11):1057–1067PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Settlage SB, Orozco BM et al (1999) Geminiviruses: models for plant DNA replication, transcription, and cell cycle regulation. Crit Rev Plant Sci 18(1):71–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Settlage SB, Orozco BM et al (2000) Geminiviruses: models for plant DNA replication, transcription, and cell cycle regulation. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 35(2):105–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Settlage SB, Robertson D (2004) Reprogramming plant gene expression: a prerequisite to Geminivirus DNA replication. Mol Plant Pathol 5(2):149–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Bejarano ER, Robertson D et al (2013) Geminiviruses: masters at redirecting and reprogramming plant processes. Nat Rev Microbiol 11(11):777–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harrison BD, Robinson DJ (1999) Natural genomic and antigenic variation in whitefly-transmitted Geminiviruses (Begomoviruses). Annu Rev Phytopathol 37:369–398PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Hartitz MD, Sunter G, Bisaro DM (1999) The tomato Golden mosaic virus Transactivator (TrAP) is a single-stranded DNA and zinc-binding Phosphoprotein with an acidic activation domain. Virology 263(1):1–14PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Hayes RJ, Buck KW (1989) Replication of tomato Golden mosaic virus DNA B in transgenic plants expressing open Reading frames (ORFs) of DNA a: requirement of ORF AL2 for production of single-stranded DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 17(24):10213–10222PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Heyraud-Nitschke F, Schumacher S, Laufs J et al (1995) Determination of the origin cleavage and joining domain of Geminivirus rep proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 23(6):910–916PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Hipp K, Rau P, Schäfer B et al (2014) The RXL motif of the African cassava mosaic virus rep protein is necessary for Rereplication of yeast DNA and viral infection in plants. Virology 462–463(1):189–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hofer JM, Dekker EL, Reynold HV et al (1992) Coordinate regulation of replication and Virion sense gene expression in wheat dwarf virus. Plant Cell 4(2):213–223PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Hormuzdi SG, Bisaro DM (1993) Genetic analysis of beet curly top virus: evidence for three Virion sense genes involved in movement and regulation of single- and double-stranded Dna levels. Virology 193(2):900–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Horns T, Jeske H (1991) Localization of Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) DNA within leaf tissue by in situ hybridization. Virology 181(2):580–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hung HC, Petty ITD (2001) Functional equivalence of late gene promoters in bean Golden mosaic virus with those in tomato Golden mosaic virus. J Gen Virol 82(3):667–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hur J, Buckley KJ, Lee S, Davis KR (2007) Transcriptional activator elements for Curtovirus C1 expression reside in the 3 ’ coding region of ORF C1. Mol Cells 23(1):80–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hur J, Choi YE, Buckley KJ, Lee S et al (2008) Identification of a promoter motif involved in Curtovirus sense-gene expression in transgenic Arabidopsis. Mol Cells 26(2):131–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ilyina TV, Koonin EV (1992) Conserved sequence motifs in the initiator proteins for rolling circle DNA replication encoded by diverse Replicons from Eubacteria, Eucaryotes and Archaebacteria. Nucleic Acids Res 20(13):3279–3285PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Jeske H, Lütgemeier M, Preib W (2001) DNA forms indicate rolling circle and recombination-dependent replication of Abutilon mosaic virus. EMBO J 20(21):6158–6167PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Kaliappan K, Choudhury NR, Suyal G, Mukherjee SK (2012) A novel role for RAD54: this host protein modulates Geminiviral DNA replication. FASEB J 26(3):1142–1160PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Kammann M, Schalk HJ, Matzeit V, chaefer S et al (1991) DNA replication of wheat dwarf virus, a Geminivirus, requires two Cis-acting signals. Virology 184(2):786–790PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Koepsel RR (1985) The replication initiator protein of plasmid pT181 has sequence-specific Endonuclease and Topoisomerase-like activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci 82(20):6845–6849PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Kong LJ, Hanley-Bowdoin L (2002) A Geminivirus replication protein interacts with a protein Kinase and a motor protein that display different expression patterns during plant development and infection. Plant Cell 14(8):1817–1832PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Kumar RV, Prasanna HC, Singh AK, Ragunathan D et al (2017) Molecular genetic analysis and evolution of Begomoviruses and Betasatellites causing yellow mosaic disease of Bhendi. Virus Genes 53(2):275–285PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Kushwaha NK, Bhardwaj M, Chakraborty S (2017) The replication initiator protein of a Geminivirus interacts with host Monoubiquitination machinery and stimulates transcription of the viral genome. PLoS Pathog 13(8):e1006587.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006587 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Lacatus G, Sunter G (2008) Functional analysis of bipartite Begomovirus coat protein promoter sequences. Virology 376(1):79–89PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Laufs J, Traut W, Heyraud F, Matzeit F et al (1995) In vitro cleavage and joining at the viral origin of replication by the replication initiator protein of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(9):3879–3883PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Lewis JD, Lazarowitz SG (2010) Arabidopsis Synaptotagmin SYTA regulates Endocytosis and virus movement protein cell-to-cell transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107(6):2491–2496PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Luque A, Andrés P, Burgos S, Ramirez-Parra E et al (2002) Interaction of Geminivirus rep protein with replication factor C and its potential role during Geminivirus DNA replication. Virology 302(1):83–94PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Mazithulela G, Sudhakar D, Heckel T, Mehlo L et al (2000) The maize streak virus coat protein transcription unit exhibits tissue-specific expression in transgenic Rice. Plant Sci 155:21–29PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Morris-Krsinich BAM, Mullineaux PM, Donson J, Boulton MI et al (1985) Bidirectional transcription of maize streak virus DNA and identification of the coat protein gene. Nucleic Acids Res 13:7237–7256PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Morris-Krsinich BAM, Richardson KA, Haley A, Zhan XC et al (1992) The nucleotide sequence of the infectious cloned Dna component of tobacco yellow dwarf virus reveals features of Geminiviruses infecting monocotyledonous plants. Virology 187(2):633–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mullineaux PM, Guerineau F, Accotto GP (1990) Processing of complementary sense RNAs of Digitaria streak virus in its host and in transgenic tobacco. Nucleic Acids Res 18(24):7259–7265PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Mullineaux PM, Rigden JE, Dry IB, Krake LR et al (1993) Mapping of the Polycistronic RNAs of tomato leaf curl Geminivirus. Virology 193(1):414–423PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Nagar S, Pedersen TJ, Carrick KM, Hanley-Bowdoin L et al (1995) A geminivirus induces expression of a host DNA synthesis protein in terminally differentiated plant cells. Plant Cell 7(June):705–719PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Nash TE, Dallas MB, Reyes MI, Buhrman GK et al (2011) Functional analysis of a novel motif conserved across Geminivirus rep proteins. J Virol 85(3):1182–1192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Nikovics K, Simidjieva J, Peres A, Ayaydin F et al (2001) Cell-cycle, phase-specific activation of maize streak virus promoters. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 14(5):609–617PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Noris E, Jupin I, Accotto GP, Gronenborn B (1996) DNA-binding activity of the C2 protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Geminivirus. Virology 217(2):607–612PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Orozco BM, Hanley-Bowdoin L (1998) Conserved sequence and structural motifs contribute to the DNA binding and cleavage activities of a Geminivirus replication protein. J Biol Chem 273(38):24448–24456PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Orozco BM, Miller AB, Settlage SB, Hanley-Bowdoin L (1997) Functional domains of a Geminivirus replication protein. J Biol Chem 272(15):9840–9846PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Pant V, Gupta D, Choudhury NR, Malathi VG et al (2001) Molecular characterization of the rep protein of the Blackgram isolate of Indian Mungbean yellow mosaic virus. J Gen Virol 82(10):2559–2567PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Pascal E, Sanderfoot AA, Ward BM, Medville R et al (1994) The Geminivirus BR1 movement protein binds single-stranded DNA and localizes to the cell nucleus. Plant Cell 6(7):995–1006PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Pasumarthy KK, Choudhury NR, Mukherjee SK (2010) Tomato leaf curl Kerala virus (ToLCKeV) AC3 protein forms a higher order Oligomer and enhances ATPase activity of replication initiator protein (rep/AC1). Virol J 7:128PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Petty ITD, Coutts RHA, Buck KW (1986) Geminivirus coat protein gene promoter sequences can function in Escherichia Coli. Nucleic Acids Res 14(12):5113PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Petty ITD, Coutts RHA, Buck KW (1988) Transcriptional mapping of the coat protein gene of tomato Golden mosaic virus. J Gen Virol 69(1988):1359–1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pilartz M, Jeske H (1992) Abutilon mosaic Geminivirus double-stranded DNA is packed into Minichromosomes. Virology 189(2):800–802PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Pilartz M, Jeske H (2003) Mapping of Abutilon mosaic Geminivirus Minichromosomes. J Virol 77(20):10808–10818PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Pooggin MM (2013) How can plant DNA viruses evade siRNA-directed DNA Methylation and silencing? Int J Mol Sci 14(8):15233–15259PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Preiss W, Jeske H (2003) Multitasking in replication is common among Geminiviruses. J Virol 77(5):2972–2980PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Rao K, Sunter G (2012) Sequences within the spinach curly top virus Virion sense promoter are necessary for vascular-specific expression of Virion sense genes. Virology 432(1):10–19PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Richter KS, Kleinow T, Jeske H (2014) Somatic homologous recombination in plants is promoted by a Geminivirus in a tissue-selective manner. Virology 452–453:287–296PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Richter KS, Ende L, Jeske H (2015) Rad54 is not essential for any Geminiviral replication mode in Planta. Plant Mol Biol 87(1–2):193–202PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Richter KS, Serra H, White CI, Jeske H (2016) The recombination mediator RAD51D promotes Geminiviral infection. Virology 493:113–127PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Rizvi I, Choudhury NR, Tuteja N (2014) Insights into the functional characteristics of Geminivirus rolling-circle replication initiator protein and its interaction with host factors affecting viral DNA replication. Arch Virol 160(2):375–387PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Ruschhaupt M, Darren PM, Lakay F, Bezuidenhout M et al (2013) Replication modes of maize streak virus mutants lacking RepA or the RepA-pRBR interaction motif. Virology 442(2):173–179PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Sanchez-Duran MA, Dallas MB, Ascencio-Ibanez JT, Reyes MI et al (2011) Interaction between Geminivirus replication protein and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme is required for viral infection. J Virol 85(19):9789–9800PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Saunders K, Stanley J (1995) Complementation of African cassava mosaic virus AC2 gene function in a mixed bipartite Geminivirus infection. J Gen Virol 76(9):2287–2292PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Saunders K, Lucy A, Stanley J (1991) DNA forms of the Geminivirus African cassava mosaic virus consistent with a rolling circle mechanism of replication. Nucleic Acids Res 19(9):2325–2330PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Saunders K, Lucy A, Stanley J (1992) RNA-primed complementary-sense DNA synthesis of the Geminivirus African cassava mosaic virus. Nucleic Acids Res 20(23):6311–6315PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Schalk HJ, Matzeit V, Schell J, Gronenborn B (1989) Wheat dwarf virus, a Geminivirus of Graminaceous plants needs splicing for replication. EMBO J 8(2):359–364PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Serra H, Ines OD, Degroote F, Gallego ME et al (2013) Roles of XRCC2, RAD51B and RAD51D in RAD51-independent SSA recombination. PLoS Genet 9(11):e1003971PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Settlage SB, Miller AB, Gruissem W, Hanley-Bowdoin L (2001) Dual interaction of a Geminivirus replication accessory factor with a viral replication protein and a plant cell cycle regulator. Virology 279(2):570–576PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Shivaprasad PV, Akbergenov R, Trinks D, Veluthambi K et al (2005) Promoters, transcripts, and regulatory proteins of Mungbean yellow mosaic Geminivirus promoters, transcripts, and regulatory proteins of Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Geminivirus. J Virol 79(13):8149–8163PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Shung CY, Sunter J, Sirasanagandla SS, Sunter G (2006) Distinct viral sequence elements are necessary for expression of tomato Golden mosaic virus complementary sense transcripts that direct AL2 and AL3 gene expression. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19(12):1394–1405PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Singh DK, Mohammad NI, Choudhury NR, Karjee S et al (2007) The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein a (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral rep protein. Nucleic Acids Res 35(3):755–770PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Stenger DC, Revington GN, Stevenson MC, Bisaro DM (1991) Replicational release of Geminivirus genomes from Tandemly repeated copies: evidence for rolling-circle replication of a plant viral DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci 88(18):8029–8033PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Sung YK, Coutts RHA (1995) Pseudorecombination and complementation between potato yellow mosaic Geminivirus and tomato Golden mosaic Geminivirus. J Gen Virol 76(11):2809–2815PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Sung YK, Coutts RHA (1996) Potato yellow mosaic Geminivirus AC2 protein is a sequence non-specific DNA binding protein. FEBS Lett 383(1–2):51–54PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Sunter G, Bisaro DM (1989) Transcription map of the B genome component of tomato Golden mosaic virus and comparison with a component transcripts. Virology 173(2):647–655PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Sunter G, Bisaro DM (1991) Transactivation in a Geminivirus: AL2 gene product is needed for coat protein expression. Virology 180(1):416–419PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Sunter G, Bisaro DM (1992) Transactivation of Geminivirus AR1 and BR1 gene expression by the viral AL2 gene product occurs at the level of transcription. Plant Cell 4(10):1321–1331PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Sunter G, Bisaro DM (1997) Regulation of a Geminivirus coat protein promoter by AL2 protein (TrAP): evidence for activation and Derepression mechanisms. Virology 232(2):269–280PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Sunter G, Bisaro DM (2003) Identification of a minimal sequence required for activation of the tomato Golden mosaic virus coat protein promoter in protoplasts. Virology 305(2):452–462PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Sunter G, Hartitz MD, Hormuzdi SG, Brough CL et al (1990) Genetic analysis of tomato Golden mosaic virus: ORF AL2 is required for coat protein accumulation while ORF AL3 is necessary for efficient DNA replication. Virology 179(1):69–77PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Sunter G, Hartitz MD, Bisaro DM (1993) Tomato Golden mosaic virus leftward gene expression: autoregulation of Geminivirus replication protein. Virology 195(1):275–280PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Suyal G, Mukherjee SK, Choudhury NR (2013) The host factor RAD51 is involved in Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) DNA replication. Arch Virol 158(9):1931–1941PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Thommes PA, Buck KW (1994) Synthesis of the tomato Golden mosaic virus AL1, AL2, AL3 and AL4 proteins in vitro. J Gen Virol 75(8):1827–1834PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Townsend R, Stanley J, Curson SJ, Short MN (1985) Major Polyadenylated transcripts of cassava latent virus and location of the gene encoding coat protein. EMBO J 4(1):33–37PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Trinks D, Rajeswaran R, Shivaprasad PV, Akbergenov R et al (2005) Suppression of RNA silencing by a Geminivirus nuclear protein, AC2, correlates with Transactivation of host genes. J Virol 79(4):2517–2527PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Tu J, Sunter G (2007) A conserved binding site within the tomato Golden mosaic virus AL-1629 promoter is necessary for expression of viral genes important for pathogenesis. Virology 367(1):117–125PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Uchiyama A, Shimada-Beltran H, Levy A, Zheng JY et al (2014) The Arabidopsis Synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses. Front Plant Sci 5:584PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Usharani KS, Periasamy M, Malathi VG (2006) Studies on the activity of a bidirectional promoter of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus by Agroinfiltration. Virus Res 119(2):154–162PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Vanderschuren H, Akbergenov R, Pooggin MM, Hohn T et al (2007) Transgenic cassava resistance to African cassava mosaic virus is enhanced by viral DNA-A bidirectional promoter-derived siRNAs. Plant Mol Biol 64(5):549–557PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Wang WC, Hsu YH, Lin NS, Wu CY et al (2013) A novel prokaryotic promoter identified in the genome of some Monopartite Begomoviruses. PLoS One 8(7):e70037PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Wang WC, Wu CY, Lai YC, Lin NS et al (2014) Characterizationof the cryptic AV3 promoter of Ageratum yellow vein virus in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. PLoS One 9:e108608PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Willment JA, Martin DP, Palmer KE, Schnippenkoetter WH et al (2007) Identification of long Intergenic region sequences involved in maize streak virus replication. J Gen Virol 88. (Pt 6:1831–1841PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Wright EA, Heckel T, Groenendijk J, Davies JW et al (1997) Splicing features in maize streak virus Virion- and complementary-sense gene expression. Plant J 12(6):1285–1297PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Wyant PS, Kober S, Schwierzok A, Kocher C et al (2012) Cloned tomato Golden mosaic virus Back in tomatoes. Virus Res 167(2):397–403PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Xie Q, Suárez-López P, Gutiérrez C (1995) Identification and analysis of a retinoblastoma binding motif in the replication protein of a plant DNA virus: requirement for efficient viral DNA replication. EMBO J 14(16):4073–4082PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Xie Q, Sanz-Burgos AP, Guo H, García JA et al (1999) GRAB proteins, novel members of the NAC domain family, isolated by their interaction with a Geminivirus protein. Plant Mol Biol 39(4):647–656PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Xie Y, Liu Y, Meng M, Chen L et al (2003) Isolation and identification of a super strong plant promoter from cotton leaf curl Multan virus. Plant Mol Biol 53(1–2):1–14PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Yang X, Baliji S, Buchmann RC, Wang H et al (2007) Functional modulation of the Geminivirus AL2 transcription factor and silencing suppressor by self-interaction. J Virol 81(21):11972–11981PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Yingqiu X, Yule L, Zhen Z (2001) Expressing activity of promoter elements of large Intergenic region from cotton leaf curl virus in host plant. Sci China Ser C Life Sci 44(1):8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhan X, Haley A, Richardson K, Morris B (1991) Analysis of the potential promoter sequences of African cassava mosaic virus by transient expression of the ??-Glucuronidase gene. J Gen Virol 72(11):2849–2852PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Zhou Y, Rojas MR, Park MR, Seo YS et al (2011) Histone H3 interacts and Colocalizes with the nuclear shuttle protein and the movement protein of a Geminivirus. J Virol 85(22):11821–11832PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nivedita Sharma
    • 1
  • Rajrani Ruhel
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations