Impact of Ohmic Processing on Food Quality and Composition

  • Mehrdad NiakousariEmail author
  • Sara Hedayati
  • Hadi Hashemi Gahruie
  • Ralf Greiner
  • Shahin Roohinejad


One of the novel promising technologies to pasteurize, sterilize, or cook a wide range of food products (e.g. fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat products) is ohmic heating, which usually helps to obtain a high product quality (Fig. 1.1). Ohmic heating is literally an electric resistance heating method, in which an alternating current (50 Hz to 100 kHz) is passed through the food material. In a flow through the unit, several electrode arrangements such as a parallel plate, colinear, parallel rod, and staggered rod electrodes are used depending on the required operation. However, alternative electrode arrangements could also be applied. Similar to other volumetric heating methods, the elimination of heating surfaces in contact with foodstuff in ohmic heating helps to reduce thermal degradation and consequently an enhancement in product quality.


  1. Aamir, M., & Jittanit, W. (2017). Ohmic heating treatment for Gac aril oil extraction: Effects on extraction efficiency, physical properties and some bioactive compounds. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 41, 224–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achir, N., Dhuique-Mayer, C., Hadjal, T., Madani, K., Pain, J.-P., & Dornier, M. (2016). Pasteurization of citrus juices with ohmic heating to preserve the carotenoid profile. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 33, 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, A. K., & Finkelstein, R. (1919). A study of the electro-pure process of treating milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 2(5), 374–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, D. R. (2008). Ohmic heating as an alternative food processing technology (Master’s thesis). Kansas state University, Kansas, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Athmaselvi, K. A., Kumar, C., & Poojitha, P. (2017). Influence of temperature, voltage gradient and electrode on ascorbic acid degradation kinetics during ohmic heating of tropical fruit pulp. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 11(1), 144–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avasoo, M., & Johansson, L. (2011). Evaluation of thermal processing technologies for strawberry jam (Master’s thesis in food technology). Sweden: Lund University.Google Scholar
  7. Azzara, C. D., & Campbell, L. B. (1992). Off-flavors of dairy products. In G. Charalambous (Ed.), Developments in food science (Vol. 28, pp. 329–374). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Bastías, J. M., Moreno, J., Pia, C., Reyes, J., Quevedo, R., & Muñoz, O. (2015). Effect of ohmic heating on texture, microbial load, and cadmium and lead content of Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis). Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 30, 98–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biss, C., Coombes, S., & Skudder, P. (1989). Process engineering in the food industry: Developments and opportunities. In R. W. Field & J. A. Howell (Eds.), Process engineering in the food industry: Developments and opportunities. Essex, EN: Elsevier Applied Science.Google Scholar
  10. Bourne, M. C. (2002). Food texture and viscosity: Concept and measurement. San Diego, CA: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bozkurt, H., & Icier, F. (2010). Ohmic cooking of ground beef: Effects on quality. Journal of Food Engineering, 96(4), 481–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castro, I., Macedo, B., Teixeira, J. A., & Vicente, A. A. (2004). The effect of electric field on important food-processing enzymes: Comparison of inactivation kinetics under conventional and ohmic heating. Journal of Food Science, 69(9), C696–C701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Castro, I., Teixeira, J. A., Salengke, S., Sastry, S. K., & Vicente, A. A. (2004). Ohmic heating of strawberry products: Electrical conductivity measurements and ascorbic acid degradation kinetics. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 5(1), 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chai, P. P., & Park, J. W. (2007). Physical properties of fish proteins cooked with starches or protein additives under ohmic heating. Journal of Food Quality, 30(5), 783–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chakraborty, I., & Athmaselvi, K. A. (2014). Changes in physicochemical properties of guava juice during ohmic heating. Journal of Ready to Eat Food, 1(4), 152–157.Google Scholar
  16. Chiavaro, E., Barbanti, D., Vittadini, E., & Massini, R. (2006). The effect of different cooking methods on the instrumental quality of potatoes (cv. Agata). Journal of Food Engineering, 77(1), 169–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Choi, M. H., Kim, G. H., & Lee, H. S. (2002). Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color and pigment stability in blood orange (Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage. Food Research International, 35(8), 753–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christian, G., & Leadley, C. (2006). New technologies bulletin 32 (No. GL55 6LD). UK: Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire.Google Scholar
  19. Dai, Y., Lu, Y., Wu, W., Lu, X., Han, Z., Liu, Y., … Dai, R. (2014). Changes in oxidation, color and texture deteriorations during refrigerated storage of ohmically and water bath-cooked pork meat. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 26, 341–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Damodaran, S., Parkin, K., & Fennema, O. R. (2008). Fennema’s food chemistry. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  21. Damyeh, M. S., Niakousari, M., Golmakani, M. T., & Saharkhiz, M. J. (2016). Microwave and ohmic heating impact on the in situ hydrodistillation and selective extraction of Satureja macrosiphonia essential oil. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 40(4), 647–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Damyeh, M. S., Niakousari, M., Saharkhiz, M. J., & Golmakani, M. T. (2016). Evaluating the effect of essential oil extraction method from Satureja macrosiphonia on its biological activities: Ohmic-and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 40(4), 697–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dima, F., Istrati, D., Garnai, M., Serea, V., & Vizireanu, C. (2015). Study on obtaining vegetables juices with high antioxidant potential, preserved by ohmic pasteurization. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, 21, 67–74.Google Scholar
  24. Duygu, B., & Ümit, G. (2015). Application of ohmic heating system in meat thawing. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 2822–2828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Engchuan, W., Jittanit, W., & Garnjanagoonchorn, W. (2014). The ohmic heating of meat ball: Modeling and quality determination. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 23, 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farahnaky, A., Azizi, R., & Gavahian, M. (2012). Accelerated texture softening of some root vegetables by Ohmic heating. Journal of Food Engineering, 113(2), 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Foegeding, E. A., Allen, C. E., & Dayton, W. R. (1986). Effect of heating rate on thermally formed myosin, fibrinogen and albumin gels. Journal of Food Science, 51(1), 104–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fuentes, V., Ventanas, J., Morcuende, D., Estévez, M., & Ventanas, S. (2010). Lipid and protein oxidation and sensory properties of vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham subjected to high hydrostatic pressure. Meat Science, 85(3), 506–514.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Ganhão, R., Morcuende, D., & Estévez, M. (2010). Protein oxidation in emulsified cooked burger patties with added fruit extracts: Influence on colour and texture deterioration during chill storage. Meat Science, 85(3), 402–409.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Gatellier, P., Kondjoyan, A., Portanguen, S., & Santé-Lhoutellier, V. (2010). Effect of cooking on protein oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched beef. Implication on nutritional quality. Meat Science, 85(4), 645–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guida, V., Ferrari, G., Pataro, G., Chambery, A., Di Maro, A., & Parente, A. (2013). The effects of ohmic and conventional blanching on the nutritional, bioactive compounds and quality parameters of artichoke heads. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 53(2), 569–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hashemi Gahruie, H., Hosseini, S. M. H., Taghavifard, M. H., Eskandari, M. H., Golmakani, M.-T., & Shad, E. (2017). Lipid oxidation, color changes, and microbiological quality of frozen beef burgers incorporated with shirazi thyme, cinnamon, and rosemary extracts. Journal of Food Quality. Scholar
  33. Hradecky, J., Kludska, E., Belkova, B., Wagner, M., & Hajslova, J. (2017). Ohmic heating: A promising technology to reduce furan formation in sterilized vegetable and vegetable/meat baby foods. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 43, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hurtaud, C., & Peyraud, J. L. (2007). Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(11), 5134–5145.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Icier, F. (2009). Influence of ohmic heating on rheological and electrical properties of reconstituted whey solutions. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 87(4), 308–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Icier, F., Izzetoglu, G. T., Bozkurt, H., & Ober, A. (2010). Effects of ohmic thawing on histological and textural properties of beef cuts. Journal of Food Engineering, 99(3), 360–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Irudayaraj, J., McMahon, D., & Reznik, D. (2000). Ohmic heating for UHT milk. Presented at the Annual Meeting, Institute of Food Technologists, Dallas, Texas.Google Scholar
  38. Jaeschke, D. P., Marczak, L. D. F., & Mercali, G. D. (2016). Evaluation of non-thermal effects of electricity on ascorbic acid and carotenoid degradation in acerola pulp during ohmic heating. Food Chemistry, 199, 128–134.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Jittanit, W., Khuenpet, K., Kaewsri, P., Dumrongpongpaiboon, N., Hayamin, P., & Jantarangsri, K. (2017). Ohmic heating for cooking rice: Electrical conductivity measurements, textural quality determination and energy analysis. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 42, 16–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kamali, E., & Farahnaky, A. (2015). Ohmic-assisted texture softening of cabbage, turnip, potato and radish in comparison with microwave and conventional heating. Journal of Texture Studies, 46(1), 12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Khajehei, F., Niakousari, M., Seidi Damyeh, M., Merkt, N., Claupein, W., & Graeff-Hoenninger, S. (2017). Impact of ohmic-assisted decoction on bioactive components extracted from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp.) leaves: Comparison with conventional decoction. Molecules, 22(12). Scholar
  42. Kim, J.-Y., Hong, G.-P., Park, S.-H., Spiess, W. E., & Min, S.-G. (2006). Effect of ohmic thawing on physico-chemical properties of frozen hamburger patties. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 26(2), 223–228.Google Scholar
  43. Kim, N. H., Ryang, J. H., Lee, B. S., Kim, C. T., & Rhee, M. S. (2017). Continuous ohmic heating of commercially processed apple juice using five sequential electric fields results in rapid inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 246, 80–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Kim, Y. H., Huff-Lonergan, E., Sebranek, J. G., & Lonergan, S. M. (2010). High-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging system induces lipid and myoglobin oxidation and protein polymerization. Meat Science, 85(4), 759–767.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Koubaa, M., Roselló-Soto, E., Barba-Orellana, S., & Barba, F. J. (2016). Novel thermal technologies and fermentation. In K. S. Ojha & B. K. Tiwari (Eds.), Novel food fermentation technologies (pp. 155–163). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lascorz, D., Torella, E., Lyng, J. G., & Arroyo, C. (2016). The potential of ohmic heating as an alternative to steam for heat processing shrimps. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 37, 329–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leizerson, S., & Shimoni, E. (2005a). Effect of ultrahigh-temperature continuous ohmic heating treatment on fresh orange juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(9), 3519–3524.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Leizerson, S., & Shimoni, E. (2005b). Stability and sensory shelf life of orange juice pasteurized by continuous ohmic heating. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(10), 4012–4018.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Liu, Y., & Chen, Y. R. (2001). Analysis of visible reflectance spectra of stored, cooked and diseased chicken meats. Meat Science, 58(4), 395–401.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Louarme, L., & Billaud, C. (2012). Evaluation of ascorbic acid and sugar degradation products during fruit dessert processing under conventional or ohmic heating treatment. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 49(2), 184–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lund, M. N., Lametsch, R., Hviid, M. S., Jensen, O. N., & Skibsted, L. H. (2007). High-oxygen packaging atmosphere influences protein oxidation and tenderness of porcine longissimus dorsi during chill storage. Meat Science, 77(3), 295–303.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Lutz, M., Henríquez, C., & Escobar, M. (2011). Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of mature and baby artichokes (Cynara scolymus L.), raw and cooked. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24(1), 49–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mathoniere, C., Mioche, L., Dransfield, E., & Culioli, J. (2000). Meat texture characterisation: Comparison of chewing patterns, sensory and mechanical measures. Journal of Texture Studies, 31(2), 183–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mercali, G. D., Gurak, P. D., Schmitz, F., & Marczak, L. D. F. (2015). Evaluation of non-thermal effects of electricity on anthocyanin degradation during ohmic heating of jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) juice. Food Chemistry, 171, 200–205.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Mercali, G. D., Jaeschke, D. P., Tessaro, I. C., & Marczak, L. D. F. (2012). Study of vitamin C degradation in acerola pulp during ohmic and conventional heat treatment. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 47(1), 91–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mercali, G. D., Schwartz, S., Marczak, L. D. F., Tessaro, I. C., & Sastry, S. (2014). Ascorbic acid degradation and color changes in acerola pulp during ohmic heating: Effect of electric field frequency. Journal of Food Engineering, 123, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mesías, M., Wagner, M., George, S., & Morales, F. J. (2016). Impact of conventional sterilization and ohmic heating on the amino acid profile in vegetable baby foods. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 34, 24–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mojtahed Zadeh Asl, R., Niakousari, M., Hashemi Gahruie, H., Saharkhiz, M. J., & Mousavi Khaneghah, A. (2018). Study of two-stage ohmic hydro-extraction of essential oil from Artemisia aucheri Boiss.: Antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics. Food Research International, 107, 462–469.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Moreno, J., Echeverria, J., Silva, A., Escudero, A., Petzold, G., Mella, K., & Escudero, C. (2017). Apple snack enriched with L-arginine using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating technology. Food Science and Technology International, 23(5), 448–456.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Niakousari, M., Hashemi Gahruie, H., Razmjooei, M., Roohinejad, S., & Greiner, R. (2018). Effects of innovative processing technologies on microbial targets based on food categories: Comparing traditional and emerging technologies for food preservation. In F. J. Barba, A. S. Sant’Ana, V. Orlien, & M. Koubaa (Eds.), Innovative technologies for food preservation: Inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms (pp. 133–185). London, UK: Academic Press, Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Oey, I., Lille, M., Van Loey, A., & Hendrickx, M. (2008). Effect of high-pressure processing on colour, texture and flavour of fruit- and vegetable-based food products: A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19(6), 320–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Olivera, D. F., Salvadori, V. O., & Marra, F. (2013). Ohmic treatment of fresh foods: Effect on textural properties. International Food Research Journal, 20(4), 1617–1621.Google Scholar
  63. Özkan, N., Ho, I., & Farid, M. (2004). Combined ohmic and plate heating of hamburger patties: Quality of cooked patties. Journal of Food Engineering, 63(2), 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Parmar, P. R., Tripathi, S., Tiwari, S., & Singh, R. (2016). Fabrication and performance evaluation of ohmic heater. International Journal of Research in Science and Technology, 6(4), 59–69.Google Scholar
  65. Patyukov, S., & Pacinovski, N. (2015). Effect of traditional and ohmic heating on fat stability of pufa-fortified cooked sausages. Macedonian Journal of Animal Science, 5(2), 107–112.Google Scholar
  66. Pedersen, S. J., Feyissa, A. H., Brøkner Kavli, S. T., & Frosch, S. (2016). An investigation on the application of ohmic heating of cold water shrimp and brine mixtures. Journal of Food Engineering, 179, 28–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pereira, R. N., Martins, R. C., & Vicente, A. A. (2008). Goat milk free fatty acid characterization during conventional and ohmic heating pasteurization. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(8), 2925–2937.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Pereira, R. N., Rodrigues, R. M., Ramos, Ó. L., Xavier Malcata, F., Teixeira, J. A., & Vicente, A. A. (2016). Production of whey protein-based aggregates under ohmic heating. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 9(4), 576–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Purchas, R. W., Wilkinson, B. H. P., Carruthers, F., & Jackson, F. (2014). A comparison of the nutrient content of uncooked and cooked lean from New Zealand beef and lamb. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 35(2), 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rahman, S. (2007). Handbook of food preservation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ramaswamy, H. S., Marcotte, M., Sastry, S., & Abdelrahim, K. (2014). Ohmic heating in food processing. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Roberts, J. S., Balaban, M. O., Zimmerman, R., & Luzuriaga, D. (1998). Design and testing of a prototype ohmic thawing unit. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 19(2), 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rodriguez-Amaya, D. B. (2001). A guide to carotenoid analysis in foods (ILSI press). Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press.Google Scholar
  74. Roux, S., Courel, M., Ait-Ameur, L., Birlouez-Aragon, I., & Pain, J.-P. (2009). Kinetics of Maillard reactions in model infant formula during UHT treatment using a static batch ohmic heater. Dairy Science & Technology, 89(3), 349–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Roux, S., Courel, M., Birlouez-Aragon, I., Municino, F., Massa, M., & Pain, J.-P. (2016). Comparative thermal impact of two UHT technologies, continuous ohmic heating and direct steam injection, on the nutritional properties of liquid infant formula. Journal of Food Engineering, 179, 36–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Santé-Lhoutellier, V., Astruc, T., Marinova, P., Greve, E., & Gatellier, P. (2008). Effect of meat cooking on physicochemical state and in vitro digestibility of myofibrillar proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(4), 1488–1494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sarkis, J. R., Jaeschke, D. P., Tessaro, I. C., & Marczak, L. D. F. (2013). Effects of ohmic and conventional heating on anthocyanin degradation during the processing of blueberry pulp. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 51(1), 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Seidi Damyeh, M., & Niakousari, M. (2016). Impact of ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation on kinetics data, physicochemical and biological properties of Prangos ferulacea Lindle. essential oil: Comparison with conventional hydrodistillation. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 33, 387–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Seidi Damyeh, M., & Niakousari, M. (2017). Ohmic hydrodistillation, an accelerated energy-saver green process in the extraction of Pulicaria undulata essential oil. Industrial Crops and Products, 98, 100–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Septembre-Malaterre, A., Remize, F., & Poucheret, P. (2018). Fruits and vegetables, as a source of nutritional compounds and phytochemicals: Changes in bioactive compounds during lactic fermentation. Food Research International, 104, 86–99.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Shirsat, N., Brunton, N. P., Lyng, J. G., McKenna, B., & Scannell, A. (2004). Texture, colour and sensory evaluation of a conventionally and ohmically cooked meat emulsion batter. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84(14), 1861–1870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shynkaryk, M. V., Ji, T., Alvarez, V. B., & Sastry, S. K. (2010). Ohmic heating of peaches in the wide range of frequencies (50 Hz to 1 MHz). Journal of Food Science, 75(7), E493–E500.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Simpson, D. P. (1983). Apparatus for heating electrically conductive flowable media. Patent number: DE3160372D1.Google Scholar
  84. Simpson, D. P., & Stirling, R. (1995). Ohmic Heater including electrodes arranged along a flow axis to reduce leakage current. Patent number: US5440667A.Google Scholar
  85. Singh, A., Santosh, S., Kulshrestha, M., Chand, K., Lohani, U., & Shahi, N. (2013). Quality characteristics of Ohmic heated Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) pulp. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 12(4), 670–676.Google Scholar
  86. Stirling, R., & Coombes, S. A. (1990). Apparatus for heating an electrically conductive flowable material flowing through a pipeline. Patent number: US4959525A.Google Scholar
  87. Tadpitchayangkoon, P., Park, J. W., & Yongsawatdigul, J. (2012). Gelation characteristics of tropical surimi under water bath and ohmic heating. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 46(1), 97–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Thomas, E. L. (1981). Trends in milk flavors. Journal of Dairy Science, 64(6), 1023–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Toldrá, F. (2017). Lawrie’s meat science. Duxford, UK: Woodhead Publishing.Google Scholar
  90. Tumpanuvatr, T., & Jittanit, W. (2012). The temperature prediction of some botanical beverages, concentrated juices and purees of orange and pineapple during ohmic heating. Journal of Food Engineering, 113(2), 226–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Van Buren, J. P. (1979). The chemistry of texture in fruits and vegetables. Journal of Texture Studies, 10(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Vikram, V. B., Ramesh, M. N., & Prapulla, S. G. (2005). Thermal degradation kinetics of nutrients in orange juice heated by electromagnetic and conventional methods. Journal of Food Engineering, 69(1), 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Waldron, K. W., Parker, M. L., & Smith, A. C. (2003). Plant cell walls and food quality. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2(4), 128–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wells, A. S. (2001). The role of milk in the British diet. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 54(4), 130–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wills, T. M., Dewitt, C. A. M., Sigfusson, H., & Bellmer, D. (2006). Effect of cooking method and ethanolic tocopherol on oxidative stability and quality of beef patties during refrigerated storage (oxidative stability of cooked patties). Journal of Food Science, 71(3), C109–C114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zell, M., Lyng, J. G., Cronin, D. A., & Morgan, D. J. (2009). Ohmic cooking of whole beef muscle – Optimisation of meat preparation. Meat Science, 81(4), 693–698.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Zell, M., Lyng, J. G., Cronin, D. A., & Morgan, D. J. (2010a). Ohmic cooking of whole beef muscle-evaluation of the impact of a novel rapid ohmic cooking method on product quality. Meat Science, 86(2), 258–263.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Zell, M., Lyng, J. G., Cronin, D. A., & Morgan, D. J. (2010b). Ohmic cooking of whole turkey meat – Effect of rapid ohmic heating on selected product parameters. Food Chemistry, 120(3), 724–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehrdad Niakousari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sara Hedayati
    • 1
  • Hadi Hashemi Gahruie
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ralf Greiner
    • 3
  • Shahin Roohinejad
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology, School of AgricultureShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Biomolecular Engineering Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of AgricultureShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  3. 3.Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess EngineeringMax Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and FoodKarlsruheGermany
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and NutritionUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations