Departures from Model Assumptions
This topic needs particular emphasis in research. Departures considered include the initial effect of tagging, tag-loss models (including telemetry data), heterogeneity, and catchability dependence, along with appropriate test procedures. Mixtures model can be used here together with incorporating age dependency in the JS (Jolly-Seber) model. Statespace models, which later have a large chapter of their own, are incorporated here to deal with heterogeneity. Various types of migration can also affect underlying assumptions, such as random immigration and transients (those just passing through as opposed to residents). Over-dispersion, which affects parameter estimates, is the last topic.