Evaluating the Prevalence and the Working Conditions of Dependent Self-Employment in the European Union
Since the turn of the millennium, there has been a concern that employees are being falsely classified as self-employed to circumvent collective agreements, labour laws, and employment tax. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and the working conditions of those in dependent self-employment. Analysing the European Working Conditions Survey in the 28 member states of the European Union, the finding is that 4% of the workforce is dependent self-employed and that there is a need for a more nuanced understanding of the working conditions faced by the dependent self-employed. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and policy implications.
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