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European Union pp 111-121 | Cite as

Size of the Shadow Economies of 28 European Union Countries from 2003 to 2018

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  • Friedrich SchneiderEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Over the period 2003 to 2018, the average of the size of the shadow economy of the 28 EU-countries decreased from 22.6% (of GDP) in 2003 to 16.8% in 2018. With respect to a decrease or increase in 2018, the development of the shadow economy in these EU-countries is not uniform. In most EU-countries (23 out of 28), the shadow economy will further decrease, but the remaining 5 EU-countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, and UK) it will increase.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johannes Kepler UniversityLinzAustria

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