Designing, Reporting, and Interpreting Clinical Research Studies About Treatments for Pain: Evidence-Based Medicine
A thorough understanding of evidence-based medicine is a requirement for any clinician, especially those in rapidly developing specialties such as pain medicine. This understanding is not only important to guide clinical practice, but also to empower active contribution to the body of evidence that is required to justify reimbursements for interventions.
KeywordsEvidence-based medicine Trial design Placebo controlled Randomized Bias CONSORT SPIRIT IMMPACT ACTTION
- 3.World Health Organization. n.d. Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://www.who.int/ictrp/en/.
- 4.IOM (Institute of Medicine). Relieving pain in America: a blueprint for transforming prevention, care, education, and research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.Google Scholar
- 6.XenoPort, Inc. Phase II results for GSK1838262 (XP13512) reported for neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy; 2009.Google Scholar
- 9.Hrobjartsson A, Gotzsche P. Placebo interventions for all clinical conditions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD003974.Google Scholar
- 13.Galer BS, Lee D, Ma T, Nagle B, Schlagheck TG. MorphiDex (morphine sulfate/dextromethorphan hydrobromide combination) in the treatment of chronic pain: three multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials fail to demonstrate enhanced opioid analgesia or reduction in tolerance. Pain. 2005;115:284–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.National Research Council. The prevention and treatment of missing data in clinical trials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010.Google Scholar
- 17.IOM (Institute of Medicine). Transforming clinical research in the United States: challenges and opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010.Google Scholar
- 19.Turner L, Shamseer L, Altman DG, Weeks L, Peters J, Kober T, Dias S, Schulz KF, Plint AC, Moher D. Consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) and the completeness of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in medical journals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:MR000030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Chan AW, Tetzlaff JM, Altman DG, Laupacis A, Gøtzsche PC, Krleža-Jerić K, Hróbjartsson A, Mann H, Dickersin K, Berlin JA, Doré CJ, Parulekar WR, Summerskill WS, Groves T, Schulz KF, Sox HC, Rockhold FW, Rennie D, Moher D. SPIRIT 2013 statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:200–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar