Pain in Pregnancy and Labor

  • Demetri Koutsospyros
  • Lawrence Epstein


Pain in pregnancy is extremely common, and pain in labor is universal. Pain during pregnancy can be of a chronic nature due to a preexisting condition or due to the physiologic changes of pregnancy. The treatment of pain during pregnancy is challenging due to restrictions related to fetal development. Labor pain can also vary in character and scope, and the various stages of labor require separate approaches to treatment.


Pregnancy Gestation Labor Delivery 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Demetri Koutsospyros
    • 1
  • Lawrence Epstein
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyMontefiore Medical CenterBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyJames J Peters Veterans Affairs Medical CenterBronxUSA

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