Maternal Use of Insulin or Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs and Infant Congenital Malformations
There is a strong association between maternal pre-existing diabetes type 1 and an increased risk for congenital malformations, e.g., congenital heart defects. There is no certain difference according to the type of insulin used. Pre-existing diabetes type 2 also seems to be associated with an increased risk for congenital malformations although less strong than that of diabetes type 1. The use of oral hypoglycemic drugs in this situation seems not to carry a further risk. It is important to have a good glycemic control already when pregnancy begins in order to minimize the malformation risk.
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