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Maternal Use of Immunostimulating or Immunosuppressive Drugs and Infant Congenital Malformations

  • Bengt Källén
Chapter

Abstract

Available information on the use of immunostimulating and immunosuppressive drugs during pregnancy is limited. It is generally argued that with the exception of mycophenylate mofetil no certain teratogenic effect is seen of these drugs. The data presented here indicate that use of azathioprine or its active metabolite 6-mercaptopurine is associated with an increased risk of cardiac septum defects and perhaps of hypospadias. Similarly, tacrolimus is generally regarded as without risk for congenital malformations but in a rather small material an increased risk seemed to exist but it was based on few exposed cases and needs confirmation.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bengt Källén
    • 1
  1. 1.Tornblad Institute for Comparative EmbryologyLund UniversityLundSweden

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